Improving the intrinsic film quality of metal halide perovskites is very critical to increase the power conversion efficiency and long-term stability of perovskite solar cells. Here we report a multifunctional, non-volatile additive that can be used to modulate the kinetics of perovskite film growth through a hydrogen-bond-bridged intermediate phase. The additive enables the formation of large perovskite grains and coherent grain growth from bottom to the surface of the film. The enhanced film morphology results in significantly reduced non-radiative recombinations, thus boosting the power conversion efficiency of inverted (p–i–n) solar cells to 24.8% (24.5% certified) with a low energy loss of 0.36 eV. The unencapsulated devices exhibit improved thermal stability with a T98 lifetime beyond 1,000 h under continuous heating at 65 ± 5 °C in a nitrogen-filled glovebox. This effective approach can also be applied to wide-bandgap perovskites and large-area devices to show reduced voltage loss and high efficiency.
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All data supporting the findings of this study are available within this Article and its Supplementary Information. The .cif files corresponding to the single-crystal structures reported in this work are available from the Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre (2141303).
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The work has been supported by the Lee Shau-Kee Chair Professor (Materials Science) (A.K.-Y.J.); the support from the APRC Grant of the City University of Hong Kong (9380086, 9610508) (A.K.-Y.J.); the TCFS Grant (GHP/018/20SZ) (A.K.-Y.J.) and MRP Grant (MRP/040/21X) (A.K.-Y.J.) from the Innovation and Technology Commission of Hong Kong; the Green Tech Fund (202020164) (A.K.-Y.J.) from the Environment and Ecology Bureau of Hong Kong; the GRF grant (11307621, 11316422) (A.K.-Y.J.); from the Research Grants Council of Hong Kong, Guangdong Major Project of Basic and Applied Basic Research (2019B030302007) (A.K.-Y.J.); and the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Joint Laboratory of Optoelectronic and Magnetic Functional Materials (2019B121205002) (A.K.-Y.J.). We thank S. You for the technical support of single-crystal analysis and W. K. Wong for XPS measurements. A.K.-Y.J. thanks C. S. Lee for support with the UPS test.
The authors declare no competing interests.
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Nature Photonics thanks Xiaojing Hao and the other, anonymous, reviewer(s) for their contribution to the peer review of this work.
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Supplementary Figs. 1–38 and Tables 1–5.
The crystal structure of the GBAC–PbI2–DMF intermediate phase.
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Li, F., Deng, X., Shi, Z. et al. Hydrogen-bond-bridged intermediate for perovskite solar cells with enhanced efficiency and stability. Nat. Photon. (2023). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41566-023-01180-6