Ultrahigh-resolution thermometry is critical for future advances in bio-calorimetry1,2, sensitive bolometry for sensing3 and imaging4, as well as for probing dissipation in a range of electronic5, optoelectronic6 and quantum devices7. In spite of recent advances in the field8,9,10,11, achieving high-resolution measurements from microscale devices at room temperature remains an outstanding challenge. Here, we present a band-edge microthermometer that achieves this goal by relying on the strong, temperature-dependent optical properties of GaAs at its absorption edge12,13,14. Specifically, using a suspended asymmetric Fabry–Pérot resonator and a wavelength-stabilized probe laser we demonstrate a thermoreflectance coefficient of >30 K−1, enabling measurements with a thermometry noise floor of ~60 nK Hz−1/2 and a temperature resolution of <100 nK in a bandwidth of 0.1 Hz. The advances presented here are expected to enable a broad range of studies and applications in calorimetry and bolometry where miniaturized high-resolution thermometers are required.
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The custom scattering-matrix code used in this paper is available from the corresponding authors upon reasonable request.
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We acknowledge support from DOE-BES through a grant from the Scanning Probe Microscopy Division under award No. DESC0004871 (Experiments and Analysis) and support from the Army Research Office under award No. W911NF-19-1-0279 (fabrication of devices).
The authors declare no competing interests.
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Nature Photonics thanks Sheng Shen and the other, anonymous, reviewer(s) for their contribution to the peer review of this work.
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Source Data Fig. 2
Experimental and modelling data for Fig. 2a–d in an Excel sheet and Matlab codes for generating Fig. 2a–d from the data.
Source Data Fig. 3
Experimental data for Fig. 3a–d in an Excel sheet and Matlab codes to generate the figures from the data.
Source Data Fig. 4
Experimental data and estimated noise corresponding to Fig. 4a is provided in an Excel sheet along with Matlab code to generate Fig. 4a.
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Reihani, A., Meyhofer, E. & Reddy, P. Nanokelvin-resolution thermometry with a photonic microscale sensor at room temperature. Nat. Photon. 16, 422–427 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41566-022-01011-0
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