The energy landscape of reduced-dimensional perovskites (RDPs) can be tailored by adjusting their layer width (n). Recently, two/three-dimensional (2D/3D) heterostructures containing n = 1 and 2 RDPs have produced perovskite solar cells (PSCs) with >25% power conversion efficiency (PCE). Unfortunately, this method does not translate to inverted PSCs due to electron blocking at the 2D/3D interface. Here we report a method to increase the layer width of RDPs in 2D/3D heterostructures to address this problem. We discover that bulkier organics form 2D heterostructures more slowly, resulting in wider RDPs; and that small modifications to ligand design induce preferential growth of n ≥ 3 RDPs. Leveraging these insights, we developed efficient inverted PSCs (with a certified quasi-steady-state PCE of 23.91%). Unencapsulated devices operate at room temperature and around 50% relative humidity for over 1,000 h without loss of PCE; and, when subjected to ISOS-L3 accelerated ageing, encapsulated devices retain 92% of initial PCE after 500 h.
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Source data are provided with this paper. All the data supporting the findings of this study are available within this article and its Supplementary Information. Any additional information can be obtained from corresponding authors upon request.
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This research was made possible by the US Department of the Navy, Office of Naval Research Grant (N00014-20-1-2572). This work was supported in part by the Ontario Research Fund-Research Excellence program (ORF7-Ministry of Research and Innovation, Ontario Research Fund-Research Excellence Round 7). We appreciate the Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (beamline 14B and 16B) and X. Gao and Z. Su for their help with GIWAXS characterization. Z.N. is grateful for support by the National Key Research Program (2021YFA0715502, 2016YFA0204000) and the National Science Fund of China (61935016). S.M.P., H.R.A. and K.R.G. acknowledge the US Department of Energy under Grant DE-SC0018208 for supporting the UPS and IPES measurements. T.F. and T.C. acknowledge the Canadian Foundation for Innovation and the Natural Science and Engineering Council of Canada (NSERC) for KPFM measurements. F.L and Y.G. were funded by the King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST) Office of Sponsored Research (OSR) under Award No: OSR-CARF/CCF-3079 and OSR-2018-CRG7-3737.
The authors declare no competing interests.
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Nature Photonics thanks Mohammad Khaja Nazeeruddin, Ling Xu the other, anonymous, reviewer(s) for their contribution to the peer review of this work.
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Supplementary Text 1–6 and Figs. 1–46.
Source Data Fig. 1
Unprocessed UPS data for bulk 2D perovskite films.
Source Data Fig. 2
Unprocessed TA and in situ TA data.
Source Data Fig. 3
Coordinates from DFT calculations.
Source Data Fig. 4
Unprocessed IPES data from 2D/3D heterostructures.
Source Data Fig. 5
Normalized PL lifetimes and transient photocurrent data. Device J–V and stability data.
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Chen, H., Teale, S., Chen, B. et al. Quantum-size-tuned heterostructures enable efficient and stable inverted perovskite solar cells. Nat. Photon. 16, 352–358 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41566-022-00985-1
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