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Large-scale planar and spherical light-emitting diodes based on arrays of perovskite quantum wires


Halide perovskites are enticing candidates for highly efficient planar light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with commercial potential in displays and lighting. However, it remains a challenge for conventional solution fabrication processes to fabricate large-scale or non-planar LEDs due to the non-uniformity of perovskite films in conjunction with material stability issues. Here large-area highly uniform arrays of crystalline perovskite quantum wires are grown with emission spectra covering the whole visible range. Photoluminescence quantum yield of up to 92% and 5,644 hours as the time for photoluminescence to degrade down to its 50% of the initial value under ambient conditions are achieved for MAPbBr3 quantum wires. LEDs based on these quantum wires on rigid and flexible planar substrates are fabricated up to a four-inch wafer size and also unique three-dimensional spherical LEDs with outstanding uniformity are reported. The results suggest that the approach developed here can be generalized to other unconventional three-dimensional LEDs in the future.

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Fig. 1: Growth and characterization of MAPbBr3 QW arrays.
Fig. 2: Growth generalization and flexibility demonstration of MAPbX3 QWs.
Fig. 3: Mechanical and environmental stability test of MAPbBr3 thin film and QW arrays.
Fig. 4: MAPbBr3-QW-array-based LED performance.
Fig. 5: MAPbBr3-QW-array-based LED performance.
Fig. 6: CsPbBr3-QW-array-based LED performance.

Data availability

The data that support the findings of this study are available from the corresponding author upon reasonable request.


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This work was financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (project no. 51672231), Shenzhen Science and Technology Innovation Commission (project no. JCYJ20170818114107730), Hong Kong Research Grant Council (General Research Fund Project nos. 16214619, 16205321 and 16309018), HKUST Fund of Nanhai (grant no. FSNH-18FYTRI01), Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Intelligent Micro-Nano Optoelectronic Technology Joint Laboratory (grant no. 2020B1212030010), Independent Research Fund Denmark—Sapere Aude Starting Grant (no. 7026-00037A) and Swedish Research Council VR Starting Grant (no. 2017-05337). Y.L. acknowledges financial support by grant RGC CityU11207416. We thank D.-H. Lien and A. Javey (Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences, University of California, Berkeley) for their technical assistance on the PLQY measurement and analysis. We also thank X. Ma (Core Research Facilities, Southern University of Science and Technology, China) and B. Han (Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Southern University of Science and Technology, China) for their technical assistance on the sputtering process and TEM measurements, respectively. We also acknowledge support from the Material Characterization and Preparation Facility (MCPF), the Nanosystem Fabrication Facility (NFF), the Center for 1D/2D Quantum Materials and the State Key Laboratory of Advanced Displays and Optoelectronics Technologies at HKUST.

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Authors and Affiliations



Z.F. conceived the ideas and supervised the work. D.Z. grew the QW samples and carried out the optical spectroscopy, XRD, SEM and TEM characterizations. D.Z. and Q.Z. fabricated and characterized the LED devices with help from B.R., Y.Zhu, Y.F., B.C., L.G., Y.D., S.P., L.S. and Y.Zhang. C.W. helped with the ALD process. Y.D. helped with drawing the schematic. K.T. helped with Al sputtering and hydrophobic treatment. M.A. carried out the PLQY measurement. D.-B.K. and J.-F.L. carried out the TA measurements. S.F. and Y.L. carried out the thin-film cohesion test. D.Z., Q.Z., K.Z., Z.H. and Z.F. carried out the data analysis and wrote the manuscript. All the authors discussed the results and commented on the manuscript.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Zhiyong Fan.

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Nature Photonics thanks Qihua Xiong and the other, anonymous, reviewer(s) for their contribution to the peer review of this work.

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Supplementary information

Supplementary Information

Supplementary Figs. 1–25, Discussion and Tables 1 and 2.

Supplementary Video 1

Water stability demonstration of MAPbBr3 QWs in PAM with a hydrophobic surface.

Supplementary Video 2

Real-time measurement of a perovskite LED device with voltage scanning from 0 to 8 V.

Supplementary Video 3

Two-axis rotation for electrode deposition on the 3D spherical device.

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Zhang, D., Zhang, Q., Ren, B. et al. Large-scale planar and spherical light-emitting diodes based on arrays of perovskite quantum wires. Nat. Photon. 16, 284–290 (2022).

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