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Room-temperature superfluorescence in hybrid perovskites and its origins

An Author Correction to this article was published on 14 April 2022

This article has been updated


The formation of coherent macroscopic states and the manipulation of their entanglement using external stimuli are essential for emerging quantum applications. However, the observation of collective quantum phenomena such as Bose–Einstein condensation, superconductivity, superfluidity and superradiance has been limited to extremely low temperatures to suppress dephasing due to random thermal agitations. Here we report room-temperature superfluorescence in hybrid perovskite thin films. This surprising discovery shows that in this material platform, there exists an extremely strong immunity to electronic dephasing due to thermal processes. To explain this observation, we propose that the formation of large polarons in hybrid perovskites provides a quantum analogue of vibration isolation to electronic excitation and protects it against dephasing even at room temperature. Understanding the origins of sustained quantum coherence and the superfluorescence phase transition at high temperatures can provide guidance to design systems for emerging quantum information technologies and to realize similar high-temperature macroscopic quantum phenomena in tailored materials.

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Fig. 1: Spectroscopic signatures of SF for quasi-2D CsPbBr3 thin film at 78 K and 300 K.
Fig. 2: Fine-step TRPL data at 78 K and 300 K.
Fig. 3: Temperature-dependent fine-step TRPL data at threshold fluences.
Fig. 4: Graphic representation of QAVI.

Data availability

Source data are provided with this paper. All other data that support the plots within this paper and other findings of this study are available from the corresponding author upon reasonable request.

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We acknowledge helpful discussions with H. Ade (North Carolina State University (NCSU)). We also acknowledge the NCSU Imaging and Kinetic Spectroscopy facility. K.G. and F.S. acknowledge funding from the National Science Foundation’s ‘Designing Materials to Revolutionize and Engineer our Future’ programme (grant no. 1729383) and the NCSU Research and Innovation Seed Funding (RISF).

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Authors and Affiliations



K.G. conceived the research problems and QAVI model and coordinated the studies. M.B. and G.F. performed the PL, TRPL and pump–probe experiments, as well as analysed the results. D.S. assisted with the pump–probe experiments, and J.M. assisted with the TRPL experiments. L.L., Q.D., J.M. and F.S. provided the samples. Y.M. performed the atomic force microscopy experiment. V.V.T. performed the theoretical simulations. K.G. drafted the manuscript with the help of M.B. and G.F. All the authors helped with editing the manuscript.

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Correspondence to Kenan Gundogdu.

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Nature Photonics thanks the anonymous reviewers for their contribution to the peer review of this work.

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Supplementary Information

Supplementary Sections 1–4 and Figs. 1–29.

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Source Data Fig. 1

Source data for graphs.

Source Data Fig. 2

Source data for graphs.

Source Data Fig. 3

Source data for graphs.

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Biliroglu, M., Findik, G., Mendes, J. et al. Room-temperature superfluorescence in hybrid perovskites and its origins. Nat. Photon. 16, 324–329 (2022).

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