Nonlinear polaritonic metasurfaces created by the coupling of intersubband nonlinearities in semiconductor heterostructures with optical modes in nanoresonators have recently demonstrated efficient frequency mixings at very low pumping intensities of the order of a few tens of kilowatts per square centimetre. In these subwavelength structures, the efficiency, spectral bandwidth and local nonlinear phase of wave mixing do not depend on phase matching but only on the nonlinear response of the constituent meta-atoms. We exploit this property to demonstrate an electrically tunable nonlinear metasurface that combines a plasmonic nanocavity and a quantum-engineered semiconductor heterostructure, in which the magnitude and phase of the local nonlinear responses are controlled by a bias voltage through the quantum-confined Stark effect. We demonstrate spectral tuning, dynamic intensity modulation and dynamic beam manipulation for second-harmonic generation. Our work suggests a route for electrically reconfigurable flat nonlinear optical elements with versatile functionalities.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution
Open Access articles citing this article.
eLight Open Access 19 May 2022
Subscribe to Nature+
Get immediate online access to Nature and 55 other Nature journal
Subscribe to Journal
Get full journal access for 1 year
only $8.25 per issue
All prices are NET prices.
VAT will be added later in the checkout.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.
All prices are NET prices.
All the relevant data that support the findings of this study are available from the corresponding author upon reasonable request.
All the relevant computing codes that support the findings of this study are available from the corresponding author upon reasonable request.
Yu, N. F. & Capasso, F. Flat optics with designer metasurfaces. Nat. Mater. 13, 139–150 (2014).
Shaltout, A. M., Shalaev, V. M. & Brongersma, M. L. Spatiotemporal light control with active metasurfaces. Science 364, eaat3100 (2019).
He, Q., Sun, S. & Zhou, L. Tunable/reconfigurable metasurfaces: physics and applications. Research 2019, 1849272 (2019).
Shirmanesh, G. K., Sokhoyan, R., Wu, P. C. & Atwater, H. A. Electro-optically tunable multifunctional metasurfaces. ACS Nano 14, 6912–6920 (2020).
Li, G., Zhang, S. & Zentgraf, T. Nonlinear photonic metasurfaces. Nat. Rev. Mater. 2, 17010 (2017).
Krasnok, A., Tymchenko, M. & Alu, A. Nonlinear metasurfaces: a paradigm shift in nonlinear optics. Mater. Today 21, 8–21 (2018).
Lee, J. et al. Giant nonlinear response from plasmonic metasurfaces coupled to intersubband transitions. Nature 511, 65–69 (2014).
Nookala, N. et al. Ultrathin gradient nonlinear metasurface with a giant nonlinear response. Optica 3, 283–288 (2016).
Almeida, E., Bitton, O. & Prior, Y. Nonlinear metamaterials for holography. Nat. Commun. 7, 12533 (2016).
Ye, W. M. et al. Spin and wavelength multiplexed nonlinear metasurface holography. Nat. Commun. 7, 11930 (2016).
Dasgupta, A., Gao, J. & Yang, X. D. Atomically thin nonlinear transition metal dichalcogenide holograms. Nano Lett. 19, 6511–6516 (2019).
Reineke, B. et al. Silicon metasurfaces for third harmonic geometric phase manipulation and multiplexed holography. Nano Lett. 19, 6585–6591 (2019).
Schlickriede, C. et al. Nonlinear imaging with all-dielectric metasurfaces. Nano Lett. 20, 4370–4376 (2020).
Walter, F., Li, G. X., Meier, C., Zhang, S. & Zentgraf, T. Ultrathin nonlinear metasurface for optical image encoding. Nano Lett. 17, 3171–3175 (2017).
Ma, M. L. et al. Optical information multiplexing with nonlinear coding metasurfaces. Laser Photon. Rev. 13, 1900045 (2019).
Tang, Y. T. et al. Nonlinear vectorial metasurface for optical encryption. Phys. Rev. Appl. 12, 024028 (2019).
Zheng, P. X. et al. Metasurface-based key for computational imaging encryption. Sci. Adv. 7, eabg0363 (2021).
Lu, C. C. et al. An actively ultrafast tunable giant slow-light effect in ultrathin nonlinear metasurfaces. Light Sci. Appl. 4, e302 (2015).
Shcherbakov, M. R. et al. Ultrafast all-optical switching with magnetic resonances in nonlinear dielectric nanostructures. Nano Lett. 15, 6985–6990 (2015).
Klein, M. W., Enkrich, C., Wegener, M. & Linden, S. Second-harmonic generation from magnetic metamaterials. Science 313, 502–504 (2006).
Celebrano, M. et al. Mode matching in multiresonant plasmonic nanoantennas for enhanced second harmonic generation. Nat. Nanotechnol. 10, 412–417 (2015).
Segal, N., Keren-Zur, S., Hendler, N. & Ellenbogen, T. Controlling light with metamaterial-based nonlinear photonic crystals. Nat. Photon. 9, 180–184 (2015).
Yang, Y. M. et al. Nonlinear Fano-resonant dielectric metasurfaces. Nano Lett. 15, 7388–7393 (2015).
Grinblat, G., Li, Y., Nielsen, M. P., Oulton, R. F. & Maier, S. A. Enhanced third harmonic generation in single germanium nanodisks excited at the anapole mode. Nano Lett. 16, 4635–4640 (2016).
Liu, S. et al. An all-dielectric metasurface as a broadband optical frequency mixer. Nat. Commun. 9, 2507 (2018).
Koshelev, K. et al. Subwavelength dielectric resonators for nonlinear nanophotonics. Science 367, 288–292 (2020).
Cai, W. S., Vasudev, A. P. & Brongersma, M. L. Electrically controlled nonlinear generation of light with plasmonics. Science 333, 1720–1723 (2011).
Ding, W., Zhou, L. C. & Chou, S. Y. Enhancement and electric charge-assisted tuning of nonlinear light generation in bipolar plasmonics. Nano Lett. 14, 2822–2830 (2014).
Kang, L. et al. Electrifying photonic metamaterials for tunable nonlinear optics. Nat. Commun. 5, 4680 (2014).
Lee, K. T. et al. Electrically biased silicon metasurfaces with magnetic Mie resonance for tunable harmonic generation of light. ACS Photon. 6, 2663–2670 (2019).
Gomez-Diaz, J. S., Tymchenko, M., Lee, J., Belkin, M. A. & Alu, A. Nonlinear processes in multi-quantum-well plasmonic metasurfaces: electromagnetic response, saturation effects, limits, and potentials. Phys. Rev. B 92, 125429 (2015).
Lee, J. et al. Ultrathin second-harmonic metasurfaces with record-high nonlinear optical response. Adv. Opt. Mater. 4, 664–670 (2016).
Nookala, N. et al. Mid-infrared second-harmonic generation in ultra-thin plasmonic metasurfaces without a full-metal backplane. Appl. Phys. B 124, 132 (2018).
Yu, J. et al. Third-harmonic generation from plasmonic metasurfaces coupled to intersubband transitions. Adv. Opt. Mater. 7, 1801510 (2019).
Capasso, F., Sirtori, C. & Cho, A. Y. Coupled-quantum-well semiconductors with giant electric-field tunable nonlinear-optical properties in the infrared. IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1313–1326 (1994).
Rosencher, E. et al. Quantum engineering of optical nonlinearities. Science 271, 168–173 (1996).
Sirtori, C., Capasso, F., Sivco, D. L., Hutchinson, A. L. & Cho, A. Y. Resonant Stark tuning of 2nd-order susceptibility in coupled quantum-wells. Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 151–153 (1992).
Todorov, Y. et al. Ultrastrong light-matter coupling regime with polariton dots. Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 196402 (2010).
Balanis, C. A. Advanced Engineering Electromagnetics (Wiley, 1989).
Wolf, O. et al. Phased-array sources based on nonlinear metamaterial nanocavities. Nat. Commun. 6, 7667 (2015).
Chen, S. M., Li, K. F., Li, G. X., Cheah, K. W. & Zhang, S. Gigantic electric-field-induced second harmonic generation from an organic conjugated polymer enhanced by a band-edge effect. Light Sci. Appl. 8, 17 (2019).
Harvey, J. E. & Pfisterer, R. N. Understanding diffraction grating behavior: including conical diffraction and Rayleigh anomalies from transmission gratings. Opt. Eng. 58, 087105 (2019).
Wolf, O. et al. Enhanced optical nonlinearities in the near-infrared using iii-nitride heterostructures coupled to metamaterials. Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 151108 (2015).
Qian, H. L. et al. Large optical nonlinearity enabled by coupled metallic quantum wells. Light Sci. Appl. 8, 13 (2019).
This work was supported by a Basic Science Research Program and Nano Material Technology Development Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) under grant nos. 2019R1A2C4070623, 2020R1A4A3079834 and 2018M3A7B4070029 funded by the Korean Government (MSIT). Technical University of Munich group acknowledges support from the DARPA’s Nascent Light-Matter Interactions program. This paper is dedicated to the memory of Prof. Markus-Christian Amann who supervised the growth of the semiconductor heterostructure used in this study. Prof. Amann passed away unexpectedly on November 23, 2018.
The authors declare no competing interests.
Peer review information Nature Photonics thanks Yuanmu Yang, Shreyas Shah and Maxim Shcherbakov for their contribution to the peer review of this work.
Publisher’s note Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
About this article
Cite this article
Yu, J., Park, S., Hwang, I. et al. Electrically tunable nonlinear polaritonic metasurface. Nat. Photon. 16, 72–78 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41566-021-00923-7
This article is cited by