The nanoscale mode volumes of surface plasmon polaritons have enabled plasmonic lasers and condensates with ultrafast operation1,2,3,4. Most plasmonic lasers are based on noble metals, rendering the optical mode structure inert to external fields. Here we demonstrate active magnetic-field control over lasing in a periodic array of Co/Pt multilayer nanodots immersed in an IR-140 dye solution. We exploit the magnetic nature of the nanoparticles combined with mode tailoring to control the lasing action. Under circularly polarized excitation, angle-resolved photoluminescence measurements reveal a transition between the lasing action and non-lasing emission as the nanodot magnetization is reversed. Our results introduce magnetization as a means of externally controlling plasmonic nanolasers, complementary to modulation by excitation5, gain medium6,7 or substrate8. Further, the results show how the effects of magnetization on light that are inherently weak can be observed in the lasing regime, inspiring studies of topological photonics9,10,11.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution
Subscribe to Nature+
Get immediate online access to Nature and 55 other Nature journal
Subscribe to Journal
Get full journal access for 1 year
only $8.25 per issue
All prices are NET prices.
VAT will be added later in the checkout.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.
All prices are NET prices.
Source data are provided with this paper. All other data from this work are available from the corresponding authors upon reasonable request.
Oulton, R. F. et al. Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale. Nature 461, 629–632 (2009).
Hill, M. T. & Gather, M. C. Advances in small lasers. Nat. Photon. 8, 908–918 (2014).
Wang, D., Wang, W., Knudson, M. P., Schatz, G. C. & Odom, T. W. Structural engineering in plasmon nanolasers. Chem. Rev. 118, 2865–2881 (2018).
Hakala, T. K. et al. Bose–Einstein condensation in a plasmonic lattice. Nat. Phys. 14, 739 (2018).
Knudson, M. P. et al. Polarization-dependent lasing behavior from low-symmetry nanocavity arrays. ACS Nano 13, 7435–7441 (2019).
Yang, A. et al. Real-time tunable lasing from plasmonic nanocavity arrays. Nat. Commun. 6, 6939 (2015).
Taskinen, J. M. et al. All-optical emission control and lasing in plasmonic lattices. ACS Photonics 7, 2850–2858 (2020).
Wang, D. et al. Stretchable nanolasing from hybrid quadrupole plasmons. Nano Lett. 18, 4549–4555 (2018).
Haldane, F. D. & Raghu, S. Possible realization of directional optical waveguides in photonic crystals with broken time-reversal symmetry. Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 013904 (2008).
Bahari, B. et al. Nonreciprocal lasing in topological cavities of arbitrary geometries. Science 358, 636–640 (2017).
Ozawa, T. et al. Topological photonics. Rev. Mod. Phys. 91, 015006 (2019).
Zhou, W. et al. Lasing action in strongly coupled plasmonic nanocavity arrays. Nat. Nanotechnol. 8, 506–511 (2013).
Schokker, A. H. & Koenderink, A. F. Lasing in quasi-periodic and aperiodic plasmon lattices. Optica 3, 686–693 (2016).
Wang, D. et al. Band-edge engineering for controlled multi-modal nanolasing in plasmonic superlattices. Nat. Nanotechnol. 12, 889–894 (2017).
Ramezani, M. et al. Plasmon-exciton-polariton lasing. Optica 4, 31–37 (2017).
Ha, S. T. et al. Directional lasing in resonant semiconductor nanoantenna arrays. Nat. Nanotechnol. 13, 1042–1047 (2018).
Pourjamal, S. et al. Lasing in Ni nanodisk arrays. ACS Nano 13, 5686–5692 (2019).
Maccaferri, N. et al. Ultrasensitive and label-free molecular-level detection enabled by light phase control in magnetoplasmonic nanoantennas. Nat. Commun. 6, 6150 (2015).
Freire-Fernández, F., Mansell, R. & van Dijken, S. Magnetoplasmonic properties of perpendicularly magnetized [Co/Pt]N nanodots. Phys. Rev. B 101, 054416 (2020).
Zou, S., Janel, N. & Schatz, G. C. Silver nanoparticle array structures that produce remarkably narrow plasmon lineshapes. J. Chem. Phys. 120, 10871–10875 (2004).
Guan, J. et al. Quantum dot-plasmon lasing with controlled polarization patterns. ACS Nano 14, 3426–3433 (2020).
Lawley, K. P. Advances in Chemical Physics Vol. 42 (John Wiley & Sons, 1980).
Pineider, F. et al. Circular magnetoplasmonic modes in gold nanoparticles. Nano Lett. 13, 4785–4789 (2013).
Kataja, M., Pourjamal, S. & van Dijken, S. Magnetic circular dichroism of non-local surface lattice resonances in magnetic nanoparticle arrays. Opt. Express 24, 3562–3571 (2016).
Vedmedenko, E. Y. et al. The 2020 magnetism roadmap. J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 53, 453001 (2020).
Lambert, C.-H. et al. All-optical control of ferromagnetic thin films and nanostructures. Science 345, 1337–1340 (2014).
Ota, Y. et al. Active topological photonics. Nanophotonics 9, 547–567 (2020).
Wang, D. et al. Lasing from finite plasmonic nanoparticle lattices. ACS Photonics 7, 630–636 (2020).
Kichin, G. et al. Metal–dielectric photonic crystal superlattice: 1D and 2D models and empty lattice approximation. Physica B Condens. Matter 407, 4037–4042 (2012).
Guo, R., Hakala, T. K. & Törmä, P. Geometry dependence of surface lattice resonances in plasmonic nanoparticle arrays. Phys. Rev. B 95, 155423 (2017).
Cherqui, C., Bourgeois, M. R., Wang, D. & Schatz, G. C. Plasmonic surface lattice resonances: theory and computation. Acc. Chem. Res. 52, 2548–2558 (2019).
Daskalakis, K. S., Väkeväinen, A. I., Martikainen, J.-P., Hakala, T. K. & Törmä, P. Ultrafast pulse generation in an organic nanoparticle-array laser. Nano Lett. 18, 2658–2665 (2018).
des Francs, G. C. et al. Plasmonic Purcell factor and coupling efficiency to surface plasmons. Implications for addressing and controlling optical nanosources. J. Opt. 18, 094005 (2016).
Zvezdin, A. K. & Kotov, V. A. Modern Magnetooptics and Magnetooptical Materials (Taylor and Francis Group, 1997).
Sato, K. et al. Magnetooptical spectra in Pt/Co and Pt/Fe multilayers. Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, 3603–3607 (1992).
Johnson, P. B. & Christy, R. W. Optical constants of the noble metals. Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370 (1972).
This work was supported by the Academy of Finland (grant nos. 303351, 307419, 316857 and 327293) and by the Centre for Quantum Engineering (CQE) at Aalto University. F.F.-F. acknowledges financial support from the Finnish Academy of Science and Letters (Vilho, Yrjö and Kalle Väisälä Fund). Lithography was performed at the OtaNano–Micronova Nanofabrication Centre, supported by Aalto University. K.S.D acknowledges financial support from the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme (grant no. 948260). J.C. acknowledges support by the Academy of Finland under project no. 325608 (SPATUNANO). We thank J. Taskinen and N. Kuznetsov for help with the experiments. We acknowledge the computational resources provided by the Aalto Science-IT project.
The authors declare no competing interests.
Peer review information Nature Photonics thanks Vasily Temnov and the other, anonymous, reviewer(s) for their contribution to the peer review of this work.
Publisher’s note Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
About this article
Cite this article
Freire-Fernández, F., Cuerda, J., Daskalakis, K.S. et al. Magnetic on–off switching of a plasmonic laser. Nat. Photon. 16, 27–32 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41566-021-00922-8