Metal halide perovskite solar cells have demonstrated a high power conversion efficiency (PCE), and further enhancement of the PCE requires a reduction of the bandgap-voltage offset (WOC) and the non-radiative recombination photovoltage loss (ΔVOC,nr). Here, we report an effective approach for reducing the photovoltage loss through the simultaneous passivation of internal bulk defects and dimensionally graded two-dimensional perovskite interface defects. Through this dimensionally graded perovskite formation approach, an open-circuit voltage (VOC) of 1.24 V was obtained with a champion PCE of 21.54% in a 1.63 eV perovskite system (maximum VOC = 1.25 V, WOC = 0.38 V and ΔVOC,nr = 0.10 V); we further decreased the WOC to 0.326 V in a 1.53 eV perovskite system with a VOC of 1.21 V and a PCE of 23.78% (certified 23.09%). This approach is equally effective in achieving a low WOC (ΔVOC,nr) in 1.56 eV and 1.73 eV perovskite solar cell systems, and further leads to the substantially improved operational stability of perovskite solar cells.
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The data that support the plots within this paper and other findings of this study are available from the corresponding author upon reasonable request.
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G.L. would like to thank support from the Research Grants Council of Hong Kong (Grant No. C5037-18G, 15246816 and 15218517), the Shenzhen Science and Technology Innovation Commission (Project No. JCYJ20170413154602102, JCYJ20200109105003940) and the funding provided by the Hong Kong Polytechnic University (Project Code: 1-ZE29, 1-BBAS and the Sir Sze-yuen Chung Endowed Professorship Fund (8-8480)). G.F. acknowledges support of the National High Technology Research and Development Program (No. 2015AA050601), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 11674252 and 62074117) and the Natural Science Foundation of Hubei Province (No. 2019AAA020). X.L. and M.Q. acknowledge financial support from the Research Grant Council of Hong Kong (General Research Fund No. 14314216).
The authors declare no competing interests.
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Yang, G., Ren, Z., Liu, K. et al. Stable and low-photovoltage-loss perovskite solar cells by multifunctional passivation. Nat. Photon. 15, 681–689 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41566-021-00829-4