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Stable and low-photovoltage-loss perovskite solar cells by multifunctional passivation


Metal halide perovskite solar cells have demonstrated a high power conversion efficiency (PCE), and further enhancement of the PCE requires a reduction of the bandgap-voltage offset (WOC) and the non-radiative recombination photovoltage loss (ΔVOC,nr). Here, we report an effective approach for reducing the photovoltage loss through the simultaneous passivation of internal bulk defects and dimensionally graded two-dimensional perovskite interface defects. Through this dimensionally graded perovskite formation approach, an open-circuit voltage (VOC) of 1.24 V was obtained with a champion PCE of 21.54% in a 1.63 eV perovskite system (maximum VOC = 1.25 V, WOC = 0.38 V and ΔVOC,nr = 0.10 V); we further decreased the WOC to 0.326 V in a 1.53 eV perovskite system with a VOC of 1.21 V and a PCE of 23.78% (certified 23.09%). This approach is equally effective in achieving a low WOCVOC,nr) in 1.56 eV and 1.73 eV perovskite solar cell systems, and further leads to the substantially improved operational stability of perovskite solar cells.

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Fig. 1: Device architecture and ToF-SIMS profiling of DGPF devices.
Fig. 2: Crystallinity and morphology of the perovskite films.
Fig. 3: Photovoltaic performance and optoelectronic properties of the PSCs.
Fig. 4: Operational stability of the control and DGPF devices.

Data availability

The data that support the plots within this paper and other findings of this study are available from the corresponding author upon reasonable request.


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G.L. would like to thank support from the Research Grants Council of Hong Kong (Grant No. C5037-18G, 15246816 and 15218517), the Shenzhen Science and Technology Innovation Commission (Project No. JCYJ20170413154602102, JCYJ20200109105003940) and the funding provided by the Hong Kong Polytechnic University (Project Code: 1-ZE29, 1-BBAS and the Sir Sze-yuen Chung Endowed Professorship Fund (8-8480)). G.F. acknowledges support of the National High Technology Research and Development Program (No. 2015AA050601), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 11674252 and 62074117) and the Natural Science Foundation of Hubei Province (No. 2019AAA020). X.L. and M.Q. acknowledge financial support from the Research Grant Council of Hong Kong (General Research Fund No. 14314216).

Author information




G.L., G.Y. and Y.Y. proposed the idea and designed the experiment. G.Y. and Z.R. fabricated and characterized the PSCs. Z.R., K.L., H.Z. and Q.L. prepared and characterized the devices for the PSC efficiency certification. G.Y. conducted SEM, AFM, X-ray diffraction and PL measurements. X.L. and M.Q. carried out GIWAXS measurements and analysed the results. W.D. and H.Wu conducted the EL measurements and discussed the radiative and non-radiative recombination loss analysis. Y.C. performed DFT calculations on the BA molecule passivation under the supervision of T.S. and X.W. Both B.G. and J.H. helped to measure the ultrasensitive EQE. D.L. and S.L. contributed to the PLQY measurements. J.L., H.Wang and F.Y. carried out the UPS and absorption measurements. H.Y. and S.K.S contributed to the PDS data. H.Z. contributed to the analysis of the ToF-SIMS results. Y.Z performed the HRTEM measurements and analysed the results under the supervision of J.W. The manuscript was prepared, revised and finalized by G.L., G.F., Y.Y., G.Y., Z.R., K.L. and X.L. All authors discussed the results and commented on the manuscript.

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Correspondence to Yang Yang, Guojia Fang or Gang Li.

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Supplementary Figs. 1–30 and Tables 1–7.

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Yang, G., Ren, Z., Liu, K. et al. Stable and low-photovoltage-loss perovskite solar cells by multifunctional passivation. Nat. Photon. 15, 681–689 (2021).

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