Skip to main content

Thank you for visiting You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser (or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer). In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript.

Reply to ‘Ideal solar cell efficiencies’

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution

Access options

Rent or buy this article

Get just this article for as long as you need it


Prices may be subject to local taxes which are calculated during checkout

Fig. 1: Power losses in the SQ model including the effect of étendue expansion.


  1. Guillemoles, J. F., Kirchartz, T., Cahen, D. & Rau, U. Nat. Photon. 13, 501–505 (2019).

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  2. Shockley, W. & Queisser, H. J. J. Appl. Phys. 32, 510–519 (1961).

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  3. Maimonides, M. A Guide for the Perplexed (translated by Friedlaender, M.) 4th edn (E. P. Dutton, 1904).

  4. Markvart, T. Nat. Photon. (2021).

  5. Markvart, T. Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 064102 (2007).

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  6. Markvart, T. J. Opt. A 10, 015008 (2008).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Würfel, P. J. Phys. C 15, 3967–3985 (1982).

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  8. Rau, U., Blank, B., Müller, T. C. M. & Kirchartz, T. Phys. Rev. Appl. 4, 044016 (2017).

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  9. Green, M. A. & Ho-Baillie, A. W. Y. ACS Energy Lett. 4, 1639–1644 (2019).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Nayak, P. K., Mahesh, S., Snaith, H. J. & Cahen, D. Nat. Rev. Mater. 4, 269–285 (2019).

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding authors

Correspondence to Jean-Francois Guillemoles, Thomas Kirchartz, David Cahen or Uwe Rau.

Ethics declarations

Competing interests

The authors declare no competing interests.

Supplementary information

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Guillemoles, JF., Kirchartz, T., Cahen, D. et al. Reply to ‘Ideal solar cell efficiencies’. Nat. Photonics 15, 165–166 (2021).

Download citation

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI:

This article is cited by


Quick links

Nature Briefing

Sign up for the Nature Briefing newsletter — what matters in science, free to your inbox daily.

Get the most important science stories of the day, free in your inbox. Sign up for Nature Briefing