Realizing high-peak-power (tens to hundreds of watts or higher) short-pulse (tens of picoseconds or less) operation in semiconductor lasers is crucial for state-of-the-art applications including eye-safe high-resolution remote sensing and non-thermal ultrafine material processing. However, it has been challenging to introduce mechanisms that enable stable high-peak-power short-pulse operation in conventional semiconductor lasers. Here, we propose photonic crystal lasers that have two-dimensionally arranged gain and loss sections to enable high-peak-power short-pulse operation in the fundamental mode while suppressing lasing in higher-order modes to avoid laser instability. On the basis of this concept, we experimentally realize a high peak power of ~20 W and a short pulse width of ~35 ps with an injection current of only 3-4 A using a 400-μm-diameter device and theoretically predict that even higher peak power (>300 W) can be achieved in a 1-mm-diameter device. Our results will contribute to the realization of next-generation laser sources for the aforementioned applications.
Subscribe to Journal
Get full journal access for 1 year
only $4.92 per issue
All prices are NET prices.
VAT will be added later in the checkout.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Rent or Buy article
Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.
All prices are NET prices.
The data that support the plots within this paper and other findings of this study are available within this Article and its Supplementary Information, and are also available from the corresponding author upon reasonable request.
All associated code for 3D CWT simulations is available from the corresponding author upon reasonable request.
Kaldvee, B., Ehn, A., Bood, J. & Aldén, M. Development of a picosecond lidar system for large-scale combustion diagnostics. Appl. Opt. 48, B65–B72 (2009).
Velten, A. et al. Recovering three-dimensional shape around a corner using ultrafast time-of-flight imaging. Nat. Commun. 3, 745 (2012).
Denk, W., Strickler, J. H. & Webb, W. W. Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy. Science 248, 73–76 (1990).
Kuramoto, M. et al. Two-photon fluorescence bioimaging with an all-semiconductor laser picosecond pulse source. Opt. Lett. 32, 2726–2728 (2007).
Nolte, S. et al. Ablation of metals by ultrashort laser pulses. J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 2716–2722 (1997).
Weck, A., Crawford, T. H. R., Wilkinson, D. S., Haugen, H. K. & Preston, J. S. Laser drilling of high aspect ratio holes in copper with femtosecond, picosecond and nanosecond pulses. Appl. Phys. A 90, 537–543 (2008).
Tsang, D. Z. & Walpole, J. N. Q-switched semiconductor diode lasers. IEEE J. Quant. Electron. 19, 145–156 (1983).
Fischer, A. J., Chow, W. W., Choquette, K. D., Allerman, A. A. & Geib, K. M. Q-switched operation of a coupled-resonator vertical-cavity laser diode. Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1975–1977 (2000).
Klehr, A. et al. High-power pulse generation in GHz range with 1064-nm DBR tapered laser. IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 832–834 (2010).
Imada, M. et al. Coherent two-dimensional lasing action in surface-emitting laser with triangular-lattice photonic crystal structure. Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 316–318 (1999).
Riechel, S. et al. A nearly diffraction limited surface emitting conjugated polymer laser utilizing a two-dimensional photonic band structure. Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2310–2312 (2000).
Imada, M., Chutinan, A., Noda, S. & Mochizuki, M. Multidirectionally distributed feedback photonic crystal lasers. Phys. Rev. B 65, 195306 (2002).
Hirose, K. et al. Watt-class high-power, high-beam-quality photonic-crystal lasers. Nat. Photon. 8, 406–411 (2014).
Yoshida, M. et al. Double-lattice photonic-crystal resonators enabling high-brightness semiconductor lasers with symmetric narrow-divergence beams. Nat. Mater. 18, 121–128 (2019).
Inoue, T. et al. Comprehensive analysis of photonic-crystal surface-emitting lasers via time-dependent three-dimensional coupled-wave theory. Phys. Rev. B 99, 035308 (2019).
Liang, Y., Peng, C., Sakai, K., Iwahashi, S. & Noda, S. Three-dimensional coupled-wave model for square-lattice photonic crystal lasers with transverse electric polarization: a general approach. Phys. Rev. B 84, 195119 (2011).
Pearton, S. J. Ion implantation for isolation of III-V semiconductors. Mater. Sci. Rep. 4, 313–363 (1990).
Dyment, J. C., North, J. C. & D’Asaro, L. A. Optical and electrical properties of proton-bombarded p-type GaAs. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 207–213 (1973).
Riecke, S. M. et al. Picosecond spectral dynamics of gain-switched DFB lasers. IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 47, 715–722 (2011).
Ito, T. et al. Femtosecond pulse generation beyond photon lifetime limit in gain-switched semiconductor lasers. Commun. Phys. 1, 42 (2018).
Yeo, Y. C., Chong, T. C., Li, M. F. & Fan, W. J. Analysis of optical gain and threshold current density of wurtzite InGaN/GaN/AlGaN quantum well lasers. J. Appl. Phys. 84, 1813–1819 (1998).
Kerse, C. et al. Ablation-cooled material removal with ultrafast bursts of pulses. Nature 537, 84–88 (2016).
Hu, W., Shin, Y. C. & King, G. Modeling of multi-burst mode pico-second laser ablation for improved material removal rate. Appl. Phys. A 98, 407–415 (2010).
Chu, S. W., Liu, T. M., Sun, C. K., Lin, C. Y. & Tsai, H. J. Real-time second-harmonic-generation microscopy based on a 2-GHz repetition rate Ti:sapphire laser. Opt. Express 11, 933–938 (2003).
This work was mainly supported by the New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO). The double-lattice photonic crystal structures were designed under the project of Council for Science, Technology and Innovation (CSTI) Cross ministerial Strategic Innovation Promotion Program (SIP) ‘Photonics and Quantum Technology for Society 5.0’ (Funding agency: QST). This work was also partially supported by a grant-in-aid for scientific research (grant number 20H02655) from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS). R.M. also acknowledges support from a grant-in-aid for JSPS Fellows (grant number 19J20134). We thank M. Yoshida and J. Gelleta for fruitful discussions.
The authors declare no competing interests.
Peer review information Nature Photonics thanks Weng Chow, Herbert Winful and the other, anonymous, reviewer(s) for their contribution to the peer review of this work.
Publisher’s note Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
About this article
Cite this article
Morita, R., Inoue, T., De Zoysa, M. et al. Photonic-crystal lasers with two-dimensionally arranged gain and loss sections for high-peak-power short-pulse operation. Nat. Photonics 15, 311–318 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41566-021-00771-5
Photonic-crystal lasers with high-quality narrow-divergence symmetric beams and their application to LiDAR
Journal of Physics: Photonics (2021)
Chemical Communications (2021)