In this Review, we survey recent developments in the emerging field of high-speed variable-z-focus optical elements, which are driving important innovations in advanced imaging and materials processing applications. Three-dimensional biomedical imaging, high-throughput industrial inspection, advanced spectroscopies, and other optical characterization and materials modification methods have made great strides forward in recent years due to precise and rapid axial control of light. Three state-of-the-art key optical technologies that enable fast z-focus modulation are reviewed, along with a discussion of the implications of the new developments in variable optical elements and their impact on technologically relevant applications.
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We acknowledge financial support from Princeton University. M.D. is a Serra Hunter Fellow. M.D. acknowledges Compagnia di San Paolo, ROL 34704.
The authors declare no competing interests.
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Kang, S., Duocastella, M. & Arnold, C.B. Variable optical elements for fast focus control. Nat. Photonics 14, 533–542 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41566-020-0684-z
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