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Efficient and bright white light-emitting diodes based on single-layer heterophase halide perovskites


At present, electric lighting accounts for ~15% of global power consumption and thus the adoption of efficient, low-cost lighting technologies is important. Halide perovskites have been shown to be good emitters of pure red, green and blue light, but an efficient source of broadband white electroluminescence suitable for lighting applications is desirable. Here, we report a white light-emitting diode (LED) strategy based on solution-processed heterophase halide perovskites that, unlike GaN white LEDs, feature only one broadband emissive layer and no phosphor. Our LEDs operate with a peak luminance of 12,200 cd m−2 at a bias of 6.6 V and a maximum external quantum efficiency of 6.5% at a current density of 8.3 mA cm−2. Systematic in situ and ex situ characterizations reveal that the mechanism of efficient electroluminescence is charge injection into the α phase of CsPbI3, α to δ charge transfer and α–δ balanced radiative recombination. Future advances in fabrication technology and mechanistic understanding should lead to further improvements in device efficiency and luminance.

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Fig. 1: Demonstration of typical Pe-WLEDs with an α/δ-CsPbI3 heterophase as a single emissive layer.
Fig. 2: Structural and optical properties of the α/δ heterophase emitter.
Fig. 3: Spatially resolved optical and electronic properties of the heterophase film.
Fig. 4: Dynamics of the carriers and the proposed work mechanism in Pe-WLEDs.

Data availability

The data that support the findings of this study are available from the corresponding author upon reasonable request. Source data are provided with this paper.


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This work at NJUST was supported financially by NSFC (61725402 and 51922049), the National ‘Ten Thousand Talents Plan’ leading talents (W03020394), the Six Top Talent Innovation teams of Jiangsu Province (TD-XCL-004), the Distinguished Scientist Fellowship Program (DSFP) at King Saud University, the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province (BK20190443 and BK20180020), the National Key Research and Development Program of China (2016YFB0401701), the Young Elite Scientists Sponsorship Program by Jiangsu CAST (JS19TJGC132574), Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (30919011299, 30920032102 and 30919012107) and PAPD of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions. The imaging work at the University of Washington (UW) is supported by the Department of Energy (DOE-SC0013957) and the bulk photoluminescence measurements at UW (PLQY, spectra and T-dependent spectra) were supported by the National Science Foundation (NSF MRSEC 1719797). J.W. acknowledges support from a Washington Research Foundation innovation fellowship and a Mistletoe Foundation research fellowship. We thank C. Zhang (NJU) for the transient absorption measurements, C.Y. Zhou from Enlitech for PL mapping measurements and Y. (Demi) Liu and C. Bischak from UW for help with low-temperature PL and fluorescence microscopy measurements. The synchrotron X-ray work used resources of the Advanced Photon Source, a US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science User Facility operated by Argonne National Laboratory under contract no. DEAC02-06CH11357.

Author information




H.Z. supervised the project. J.S. and X.X. were in charge of the device and the charge dynamics, respectively. J.C., with help from B.H., carried out the experiments on materials, devices and primary optical and electronic characterizations. J.W. conducted the SPM experiment and analysis with help from J.P., under supervision from D.G. B.C. and S.Lan conducted the DFT calculations and the in situ high-energy synchrotron diffraction, respectively. X.X. and J.W. prepared the manuscript with revisions from J.S., J.C., H.Z. and D.G. All authors discussed the results and confirmed the manuscript.

Corresponding authors

Correspondence to Xiaobao Xu or Jizhong Song or David Ginger or Haibo Zeng.

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The authors declare no competing interests.

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Peer review information Nature Photonics thanks the anonymous reviewers for their contribution to the peer review of this work.

Publisher’s note Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Supplementary information

Supplementary Information

Supplementary Figs. 1–19 and Table 1.

Supplementary Video 1

This video shows the efficient and bright white light of Pe-WLEDs.

Supplementary Video 2

This video shows the stability of Pe-WLEDs without packaging.

Source data

Source Data Fig. 1

Statistical source data.

Source Data Fig. 2

Statistical source data.

Source Data Fig. 3

Statistical source data.

Source Data Fig. 4

Statistical source data.

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Chen, J., Wang, J., Xu, X. et al. Efficient and bright white light-emitting diodes based on single-layer heterophase halide perovskites. Nat. Photonics 15, 238–244 (2021).

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