Photonic quantum technology can be enhanced by monolithic fabrication of both the underpinning quantum hardware and the corresponding electronics for classical readout and control. Here, by interfacing complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS)-compatible silicon and germanium-on-silicon nanophotonics with silicon-germanium integrated amplification electronics, we curtail total capacitance in a homodyne detector to enhance the speed performance of quantum light measurement. The detector has a 3 dB bandwidth of 1.7 GHz, is shot-noise limited to 9 GHz and has a minaturized required footprint of 0.84 mm2. We show that the detector can measure the continuous spectrum of squeezing from 100 MHz to 9 GHz of a broadband squeezed light source pumped with a continuous-wave laser, and we use the detector to perform state tomography. This provides fast, multipurpose, homodyne detectors for continuous-variable quantum optics, and opens the way to full-stack integration of photonic quantum devices.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution
Open Access articles citing this article.
Nature Communications Open Access 06 August 2021
Subscribe to Nature+
Get immediate online access to the entire Nature family of 50+ journals
Subscribe to Journal
Get full journal access for 1 year
only $8.25 per issue
All prices are NET prices.
VAT will be added later in the checkout.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.
All prices are NET prices.
Data are available at the University of Bristol data repository, data.bris, at https://doi.org/10.5523/bris.3j52pj4e8oa2821wmrjcmfqg0z.
Code is available at the University of Bristol data repository, data.bris, at https://doi.org/10.5523/bris.3j52pj4e8oa2821wmrjcmfqg0z.
Wang, J., Sciarrino, F., Laing, A. & Thompson, M. G. Integrated photonic quantum technologies. Nat. Photon. 14, 273–284 (2019).
Raffaelli, F. et al. A homodyne detector integrated onto a photonic chip for measuring quantum states and generating random numbers. Quantum Sci. Technol. 3, 025003 (2018).
Zhang, G. et al. An integrated silicon photonic chip platform for continuous-variable quantum key distribution. Nat. Photon. 13, 839–842 (2019).
Gisin, N. & Thew, R. Quantum communication. Nat. Photon. 1, 165–171 (2007).
Pirandola, S., Bardhan, B. R., Gehring, T., Weedbrook, C. & Lloyd, S. Advances in photonic quantum sensing. Nat. Photon. 12, 724–733 (2018).
Herrero-Collantes, M. & Garcia-Escartin, J. C. Quantum random number generators. Rev. Mod. Phys. 89, 015004 (2017).
Ladd, T. D. et al. Quantum computers. Nature 464, 45–53 (2010).
McMahon, P. L. et al. A fully programmable 100-spin coherent ising machine with all-to-all connections. Science 354, 614–617 (2016).
Millot, G. et al. Frequency-agile dual-comb spectroscopy. Nat. Photon. 10, 27–30 (2016).
Lvovsky, A. I. & Raymer, M. G. Continuous-variable optical quantum-state tomography. Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 299–332 (2009).
Menicucci, N. C. et al. Universal quantum computation with continuous-variable cluster states. Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 110501 (2006).
Gabriel, C. et al. A generator for unique quantum random numbers based on vacuum states. Nat. Photon. 4, 711–715 (2010).
Furusawa, A. et al. Unconditional quantum teleportation. Science 282, 706–709 (1998).
Tse, M. et al. Quantum-enhanced Advanced LIGO detectors in the era of gravitational-wave astronomy. Phys. Rev. Lett. 123, 231107 (2019).
Acernese, F. et al. Increasing the astrophysical reach of the Advanced Virgo detector via the application of squeezed vacuum states of light. Phys. Rev. Lett. 123, 231108 (2019).
Hamerly, R., Bernstein, L., Sludds, A., Soljačić, M. & Englund, D. Large-scale optical neural networks based on photoelectric multiplication. Phys. Rev. X 9, 021032 (2019).
Serikawa, T. & Furusawa, A. Excess loss in homodyne detection originating from distributed photocarrier generation in photodiodes. Phys. Rev. Appl. 10, 064016 (2018).
Larsen, M. V., Guo, X., Breum, C. R., Neergaard-Nielsen, J. S. & Andersen, U. L. Deterministic generation of a two-dimensional cluster state. Science 366, 369–372 (2019).
Asavanant, W. et al. Generation of time-domain-multiplexed two-dimensional cluster state. Science 366, 373–376 (2019).
Zavatta, A., Viciani, S. & Bellini, M. Tomographic reconstruction of the single-photon fock state by high-frequency homodyne detection. Phys. Rev. A 70, 053821 (2004).
Senior, R. et al. Observation of a comb of optical squeezing over many gigahertz of bandwidth. Opt. Express 15, 5310–5317 (2007).
Kashiwazaki, T. et al. Continuous-wave 6-dB-squeezed light with 2.5-THz-bandwidth from single-mode PPLN waveguide. APL Photon. 5, 036104 (2020).
Lischke, S. et al. High bandwidth, high responsivity waveguide-coupled germanium p-i-n photodiode. Opt. Express 23, 27213–27220 (2015).
Masalov, A. V., Kuzhamuratov, A. & Lvovsky, A. I. Noise spectra in balanced optical detectors based on transimpedance amplifiers. Rev. Sci. Instrum. 88, 113109 (2017).
Voki, N., Brandl, P., Schneider-Hornstein, K., Goll, B. & Zimmermann, H. 10 Gb/s switchable binary/PAM-4 receiver and ring modulator driver for 3-D optoelectronic integration. IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22, 344–352 (2016).
Zhang, X., Zhang, Y.-C., Li, Z., Yu, S. & Guo, H. 1.2-GHz balanced homodyne detector for continuous-variable quantum information technology. IEEE Photon. J. 10, 1–10 (2018).
Masada, G. et al. Continuous-variable entanglement on a chip. Nat. Photon. 9, 316–319 (2015).
Rahim, A. et al. Open-access silicon photonics platforms in europe. IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 25, 1–18 (2019).
Ast, S. et al. Continuous-wave nonclassical light with gigahertz squeezing bandwidth. Opt. Lett. 37, 2367–2369 (2012).
Painchaud, Y., Poulin, M., Morin, M. & Têtu, M. Performance of balanced detection in a coherent receiver. Opt. Express 17, 3659–3672 (2009).
Kaiser, F., Fedrici, B., Zavatta, A., D’Auria, V. & Tanzilli, S. A fully guided-wave squeezing experiment for fiber quantum networks. Optica 3, 362–365 (2016).
Lvovsky, A. I. Iterative maximum-likelihood reconstruction in quantum homodyne tomography. J. Opt. B 6, S556 (2004).
Eberle, T. et al. Quantum enhancement of the zero-area sagnac interferometer topology for gravitational wave detection. Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 251102 (2010).
Ding, Y., Peucheret, C., Ou, H. & Yvind, K. Fully etched apodized grating coupler on the SOI platform with −0.58 dB coupling efficiency. Opt. Lett. 39, 5348–5350 (2014).
Bakir, B. et al. Low-loss (<1 dB) and polarization-insensitive edge fiber couplers fabricated on 200-mm silicon-on-insulator wafers. IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 739–741 (2010).
Benedikovic, D. et al. 25 Gbps low-voltage hetero-structured silicon-germanium waveguide pin photodetectors for monolithic on-chip nanophotonic architectures. Photon. Res. 7, 437–444 (2019).
Zhao, Y. et al. Near-degenerate quadrature-squeezed vacuum generation on a silicon-nitride chip. Phys. Rev. Lett. 124, 193601 (2020).
Cernansky, R. & Politi, A. Nanophotonic source of quadrature squeezing via self-phase modulation. APL Photon. 5, 101303 (2020).
Vaidya, V. D. et al. Broadband quadrature-squeezed vacuum and nonclassical photon number correlations from a nanophotonic device. Sci. Adv. 6, eaba9186 (2020).
Hosseinnia, A. H., Atabaki, A. H., Eftekhar, A. A. & Adibi, A. High-quality silicon on silicon nitride integrated optical platform with an octave-spanning adiabatic interlayer coupler. Opt. Express 23, 30297–30307 (2015).
We are grateful to A. Crimp, M. Loutit and G. Marshall for technical assistance and D. Mahler for helpful discussion. This work was supported by Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) programme grant EP/L024020/1, EPSRC UK Quantum Technology Hub in Quantum Enhanced Imaging (QuantIC) (EP/M01326X/1), EPSRC Quantum Technology Capital fund: Quantum Photonic Integrated Circuits (QuPIC) (EP/N015126/1) and the Centre for Nanoscience and Quantum Information (NSQI). J.F. acknowledges support from EPSRC Quantum Engineering Centre for Doctoral Training EP/LO15730/1 and Thales Group. E.J.A. acknowledges support from EPSRC doctoral prize (EP/R513179/1). S.T., V.D. and L.F.B. acknowledge financial support from the European Union by means of the Fond Européen de développement regional (FEDER) through the project OPTique et photonique pour l’Interaction MAtière Lumière (OPTIMAL), the Agence Nationale de la Recherche (ANR) through the projects Hybrid Quantum Light (HyLight) (ANR-17- CE30-0006-01) and Synchronized Pulses in Optical Cavities for Quantum optics and quantum information systems (SPOCQ) (ANR-14-CE32-0019), and the French government through the programme ‘Investments for the Future’ under the Université Côte d’Azur UCA-JEDI project (Quantum@UCA) managed by the ANR (ANR-15-IDEX-01). J.C.F.M. acknowledges support from an EPSRC Quantum Technology Fellowship (EP/M024385/1) and a European Research Council starting grant ERC-2018-STG 803665.
The authors declare no competing interests.
Publisher’s note Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
About this article
Cite this article
Tasker, J.F., Frazer, J., Ferranti, G. et al. Silicon photonics interfaced with integrated electronics for 9 GHz measurement of squeezed light. Nat. Photonics 15, 11–15 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41566-020-00715-5
This article is cited by
Nature Photonics (2022)
Nature Physics (2021)
Nature Communications (2021)