Current embodiments of photoacoustic imaging require either serial detection with a single-element ultrasonic transducer or parallel detection with an ultrasonic array, necessitating a trade-off between cost and throughput. Here, we present photoacoustic topography through an ergodic relay (PATER) for low-cost high-throughput snapshot wide-field imaging. Encoding spatial information with randomized temporal signatures through ergodicity, PATER requires only a single-element ultrasonic transducer to capture a wide-field image with a single laser shot. We applied PATER to demonstrate both functional imaging of haemodynamic responses and high-speed imaging of blood pulse wave propagation in mice in vivo. Leveraging the high frame rate of 2 kHz, PATER tracked and localized moving melanoma tumour cells in the mouse brain in vivo, which enabled flow velocity quantification and super-resolution imaging. Among the potential biomedical applications of PATER, wearable devices to monitor human vital signs in particular is envisaged.
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The data that support the plots within this paper and other findings of this study are available from the corresponding author upon reasonable request and with permission from corporate collaborations.
The reconstruction algorithm and data processing methods are described in detail in the Methods. We have opted not to make the computer codes publicly available owing to corporate collaborations and pending patent applications.
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We thank J. Ballard and C. Ma for close reading of the manuscript, Y. He and C. Yeh for technical support, and P. Hai for his image superposition codes. This work was sponsored by National Institutes of Health Grants DP1 EB016986 (NIH Director’s Pioneer Award), R01 CA186567 (NIH Director’s Transformative Research Award), R01 EB016963, U01 NS090579 (NIH BRAIN Initiative) and U01 NS099717 (NIH BRAIN Initiative).
L.V.W. and K.M. have financial interests in Microphotoacoustics, Inc., CalPACT, LLC and Union Photoacoustic Technologies, Ltd, which did not support this work.
Publisher’s note Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
Supplementary Figs. 1–10 and Supplementary Notes 1–4.
Demonstration of PATER’s imaging mechanism.
Quantification of the spatial resolution of snapshot wide-field imaging by PATER.
Snapshot wide-field imaging by PATER of blood flow behind biological tissue.
Snapshot wide-field functional PATER imaging of haemoglobin responses in a mouse brain to front-paw stimulations in vivo.
Visualization of blood pulse wave propagation in the middle cerebral arteries.
Snapshot wide-field tracking of MTCs in a tube using PATER at 660 nm light illumination.
Snapshot wide-field tracking of MTCs in a mouse brain in vivo using PATER at 660 nm light illumination.
Close-up slow-motion video of snapshot wide-field tracking of MTCs as shown in Supplementary Video 6.
Buildup of MTC localization map. The positions of migrating MTCs in the blood vessels were tracked throughout the video from Supplementary Video 6 and superimposed.
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Li, Y., Li, L., Zhu, L. et al. Snapshot photoacoustic topography through an ergodic relay for high-throughput imaging of optical absorption. Nat. Photonics (2020). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41566-019-0576-2