Skip to main content

Thank you for visiting You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser (or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer). In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript.

Large-area near-infrared perovskite light-emitting diodes


The performance of perovskite light-emitting diodes (PeLEDs) has progressed rapidly in recent years, with electroluminescence efficiency now reaching 20%1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12. However, devices, so far, have featured small areas and usually show notable variation in device-to-device performance. Here, we show that the origin of suboptimal device performance stems from inadequate hole injection, and that the use of a hole-transporting polymer with a shallower ionization potential can improve device charge balance, efficiency and reproducibility. Using an ITO/ZnO/PEIE/FAPbI3/poly-TPD/MoO3/Al device structure, we report a 799 nm near-infrared PeLED that operates with an external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 20.2%, at a current density of 57 mA cm−2 and a radiance of 57 W sr−1 m−2. The standard deviation in the device EQE is only 1.2%, demonstrating high reproducibility. Large-area devices measuring 900 mm2 operate with a high EQE of 12.1%, and are shown to suit medical applications such as subcutaneous deep-tissue illumination and heart rate monitoring.

Access options

Rent or Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.


All prices are NET prices.

Fig. 1: Device characteristics of a 4 mm2 ITO/ZnO/PEIE/FAPbI3/poly-TPD/MoO3/Al PeLED.
Fig. 2: Comparison of single-carrier devices.
Fig. 3: Energy level of PeLED device materials.
Fig. 4: Large-area 900 mm2 PeLEDs and applications.

Data availability

The data that support the plots within this paper and other findings of this study are available from the corresponding author upon reasonable request.


  1. 1.

    Tan, Z.-K. et al. Bright light-emitting diodes based on organometal halide perovskite. Nat. Nanotechnol. 9, 687–692 (2014).

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Zhao, X., Ng, J. D. A., Friend, R. H. & Tan, Z.-K. Opportunities and challenges in perovskite light-emitting devices. ACS Photon. 5, 3866–3875 (2018).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Li, G. et al. Efficient light-emitting diodes based on nanocrystalline perovskite in a dielectric polymer matrix. Nano Lett. 15, 2640–2644 (2015).

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Wang, J. et al. Interfacial control toward efficient and low-voltage perovskite light-emitting diodes. Adv. Mater. 27, 2311–2316 (2015).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Cho, H. et al. Overcoming the electroluminescence efficiency limitations of perovskite light-emitting diodes. Science 350, 1222–1225 (2015).

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Yuan, M. et al. Perovskite energy funnels for efficient light-emitting diodes. Nat. Nanotechnol. 11, 872–877 (2016).

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Wang, N. et al. Perovskite light-emitting diodes based on solution-processed self-organized multiple quantum wells. Nat. Photon. 10, 699–704 (2016).

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Li, G. et al. Highly efficient perovskite nanocrystal light-emitting diodes enabled by a universal crosslinking method. Adv. Mater. 28, 3528–3534 (2016).

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Cao, Y. et al. Perovskite light-emitting diodes based on spontaneously formed submicrometre-scale structures. Nature 562, 249–253 (2018).

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Lin, K. et al. Perovskite light-emitting diodes with external quantum efficiency exceeding 20 per cent. Nature 562, 245–248 (2018).

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Zhao, B. et al. High-efficiency perovskite–polymer bulk heterostructure light-emitting diodes. Nat. Photon. 12, 783–789 (2018).

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Xu, W. et al. Rational molecular passivation for high-performance perovskite light-emitting diodes. Nat. Photon. 13, 418–424 (2019).

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Mei, A. et al. A hole-conductor-free, fully printable mesoscopic perovskite solar cell with high stability. Science 345, 295 (2014).

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Zhang, T. et al. In situ fabrication of highly luminescent bifunctional amino acid crosslinked 2D/3D NH3C4H9COO(CH3NH3PbBr3)n perovskite films. Adv. Funct. Mater. 27, 1603568 (2017).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Schnitzer, I., Yablonovitch, E., Caneau, C., Gmitter, T. J. & Scherer, A. 30% external quantum efficiency from surface textured, thin-film light-emitting diodes. Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2174–2176 (1993).

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Tan, Z.-K. et al. In-situ switching from barrier-limited to ohmic anodes for efficient organic optoelectronics. Adv. Funct. Mater. 24, 3051–3058 (2014).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Zhou, Y. et al. A universal method to produce low-work function electrodes for organic electronics. Science 336, 327 (2012).

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Tengstedt, C. et al. Fermi-level pinning at conjugated polymer interfaces. Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 053502 (2006).

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Smith, A. M., Mancini, M. C. & Nie, S. Second window for in vivo imaging. Nat. Nanotechnol. 4, 710–711 (2009).

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references


We are grateful to H. Kuan for assistance with UPS measurements. We thank C. Xie for assistance with SEM imaging. We are grateful for funding support from the Ministry of Education of Singapore (R-143-000-674-114 and R-143-000-691-114) and the National University of Singapore (R-143-000-639-133, R-143-000-A10-133 and R-143-000-A54-118).

Author information




X.Z. performed all experiments. X.Z. and Z.-K.T. analysed the data and wrote the paper. Z.-K.T. guided the work.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Zhi-Kuang Tan.

Ethics declarations

Competing interests

The authors declare no competing interests.

Additional information

Publisher’s note Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Extended data

Extended Data Fig. 1 Spectral characteristics of FAPbI3 perovskite.

Absorbance (black) and photoluminescence spectra (red) of FAPbI3 perovskite.

Extended Data Fig. 2 Microstructure of FAPbI3 perovskite layer.

a, Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) image and b, atomic force microscopy (AFM) image of FAPbI3 perovskite layer on device substrate.

Extended Data Fig. 3 Device characteristics of 4 mm2 PeLED employing TFB.

a, Combined current density vs. voltage (black) and radiance vs. voltage (red) plots of ITO/ZnO/PEIE/FAPbI3/TFB/MoO3/Al PeLED. b, External quantum efficiency vs. current density of PeLED. Inset shows the histogram of the efficiencies of 40 devices.

Extended Data Fig. 4 Device lifetime of 900 mm2 PeLED.

Lifetime plot of 900 mm2 ITO/ZnO/PEIE/FAPbI3/Poly-TPD/MoO3/Al PeLED at constant current density of 10 mA cm−2.

Extended Data Fig. 5 Device characteristics of 900 mm2 PeLED employing TFB.

a, Combined current density vs. voltage (black) and radiance vs. voltage (red) plots of 900 mm2 ITO/ZnO/PEIE/FAPbI3/TFB/MoO3/Al PeLED. b, External quantum efficiency vs. current density of 900 mm2 PeLED.

Extended Data Fig. 6 Device characteristics of 900 mm2 PeLED on flexible PET.

a, Combined current density vs. voltage (black) and radiance vs. voltage (red) plots of 900 mm2 ITO/ZnO/PEIE/FAPbI3/Poly-TPD/MoO3/Al PeLED on flexible PET. b, External quantum efficiency vs. current density of 900 mm2 PeLED on flexible PET.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Zhao, X., Tan, ZK. Large-area near-infrared perovskite light-emitting diodes. Nat. Photonics 14, 215–218 (2020).

Download citation

Further reading


Quick links

Nature Briefing

Sign up for the Nature Briefing newsletter — what matters in science, free to your inbox daily.

Get the most important science stories of the day, free in your inbox. Sign up for Nature Briefing