Efficient blue light-emitting diodes based on quantum-confined bromide perovskite nanostructures

Abstract

The emergence of inorganic–organic hybrid perovskites, a unique class of solution-processable crystalline semiconductors, provides new opportunities for large-area, low-cost and colour-saturated light-emitting diodes (LEDs) ideal for display and solid-state lighting applications1. However, the performance of blue perovskite LEDs (PeLEDs)2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11 is far inferior to that of their near-infrared, red and green counterparts12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19, strongly limiting the practicality of the PeLED technology. Here, we demonstrate blue PeLEDs emitting at 483 nm with colour coordinates of (0.094, 0.184) and operating with a peak external quantum efficiency of up to 9.5% at a luminance of 54 cd m–2. The devices have a T50 lifetime of 250 s for an initial brightness of 100 cd m–2. The efficient blue electroluminescence originates from a structure of quantum-confined perovskite nanoparticles embedded within quasi-two-dimensional phases with higher bandgaps, prepared by an antisolvent processing scheme. Our work paves the way towards high-performance PeLEDs in the blue region.

Access options

Rent or Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.

from$8.99

All prices are NET prices.

Fig. 1: Characteristics of blue PeLEDs.
Fig. 2: Structural characterizations of the perovskite films.
Fig. 3: Optical properties of the blue-emitting perovskite film.
Fig. 4: Impacts of the antisolvent treatment.
Fig. 5: Colour-tunable blue PeLEDs.

Data availability

The data that support the plots within this paper and other findings of this study are available from the corresponding author upon reasonable request.

References

  1. 1.

    Tan, Z. K. et al. Bright light-emitting diodes based on organometal halide perovskite. Nat. Nanotechnol. 9, 687–692 (2014).

  2. 2.

    Song, J. et al. Quantum dot light-emitting diodes based on inorganic perovskite cesium lead halides (CsPbX3). Adv. Mater. 27, 7162–7167 (2015).

  3. 3.

    Li, G. et al. Highly efficient perovskite nanocrystal light-emitting diodes enabled by a universal crosslinking method. Adv. Mater. 28, 3528–3534 (2016).

  4. 4.

    Pan, J. et al. Highly efficient perovskite-quantum-dot light-emitting diodes by surface engineering. Adv. Mater. 28, 8718–8725 (2016).

  5. 5.

    Chen, Z. et al. High-performance color-tunable perovskite light emitting devices through structural modulation from bulk to layered film. Adv. Mater. 29, 1603157 (2017).

  6. 6.

    Yao, E. P. et al. High-brightness blue and white LEDs based on inorganic perovskite nanocrystals and their composites. Adv. Mater. 29, 1606859 (2017).

  7. 7.

    Wang, Q., Ren, J., Peng, X. F., Ji, X. X. & Yang, X. H. Efficient sky-blue perovskite light-emitting devices based on ethylammonium bromide induced layered perovskites. ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 9, 29901–29906 (2017).

  8. 8.

    Gangishetty, M. K., Hou, S., Quan, Q. & Congreve, D. N. Reducing architecture limitations for efficient blue perovskite light-emitting diodes. Adv. Mater. 30, 1706226 (2018).

  9. 9.

    Hou, S., Gangishetty, M. K., Quan, Q. & Congreve, D. N. Efficient blue and white perovskite light-emitting diodes via manganese doping. Joule 2, 2421–2433 (2018).

  10. 10.

    Xing, J. et al. Color-stable highly luminescent sky-blue perovskite light-emitting diodes. Nat. Commun. 9, 3541 (2018).

  11. 11.

    Yang, D. et al. Large-scale synthesis of ultrathin cesium lead bromide perovskite nanoplates with precisely tunable dimensions and their application in blue light-emitting diodes. Nano Energy 47, 235–242 (2018).

  12. 12.

    Cho, H. C. et al. Overcoming the electroluminescence efficiency limitations of perovskite light-emitting diodes. Science 350, 1222–1225 (2015).

  13. 13.

    Yuan, M. et al. Perovskite energy funnels for efficient light-emitting diodes. Nat. Nanotechnol. 11, 872–877 (2016).

  14. 14.

    Wang, N. et al. Perovskite light-emitting diodes based on solution-processed self-organized multiple quantum wells. Nat. Photon. 10, 699–704 (2016).

  15. 15.

    Xiao, Z. et al. Efficient perovskite light-emitting diodes featuring nanometre-sized crystallites. Nat. Photon. 11, 108–115 (2017).

  16. 16.

    Lin, K. et al. Perovskite light-emitting diodes with external quantum efficiency exceeding 20 per cent. Nature 562, 245–248 (2018).

  17. 17.

    Cao, Y. et al. Perovskite light-emitting diodes based on spontaneously formed submicrometre-scale structures. Nature 562, 249–253 (2018).

  18. 18.

    Zhao, B. et al. High-efficiency perovskite–polymer bulk heterostructure light-emitting diodes. Nat. Photon. 12, 783–789 (2018).

  19. 19.

    Chiba, T. et al. Anion-exchange red perovskite quantum dots with ammonium iodine salts for highly efficient light-emitting devices. Nat. Photon. 12, 681–687 (2018).

  20. 20.

    Nakamura, S., Mukai, T. & Senoh, M. Candela-class high-brightness InGaN/Al/GaN double-heterostructure blue-light-emitting diodes. Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1687–1689 (1994).

  21. 21.

    Bekenstein, Y., Koscher, B. A., Eaton, S. W., Yang, P. & Alivisatos, A. P. Highly luminescent colloidal nanoplates of perovskite cesium lead halide and their oriented assemblies. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 137, 16008–16011 (2015).

  22. 22.

    Wang, S., Bi, C., Yuan, J., Zhang, L. & Tian, J. Original core–shell structure of cubic CsPbBr3@amorphous CsPbBrx perovskite quantum dots with a high blue photoluminescence quantum yield of over 80%. ACS Energy Lett. 3, 245–251 (2018).

  23. 23.

    Gong, X. et al. Electron–phonon interaction in efficient perovskite blue emitters. Nat. Mater. 17, 550–556 (2018).

  24. 24.

    Zhitomirsky, D., Voznyy, O., Hoogland, S. & Sargent, E. H. Measuring charge carrier diffusion in coupled colloidal quantum dot solids. ACS Nano 7, 5282–5290 (2013).

  25. 25.

    Aizawa, N. et al. Instant low-temperature cross-linking of poly(N-vinylcarbazole) for solution-processed multilayer blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting devices. Adv. Mater. 26, 7543–7546 (2014).

  26. 26.

    Lee, S. Y., Yasuda, T., Komiyama, H., Lee, J. & Adachi, C. Thermally activated delayed fluorescence polymers for efficient solution-processed organic light-emitting diodes. Adv. Mater. 28, 4019–4024 (2016).

  27. 27.

    Yang, Y. X. et al. High-efficiency light-emitting devices based on quantum dots with tailored nanostructures. Nat. Photon. 9, 259–266 (2015).

  28. 28.

    Zhang, X. et al. Hybrid perovskite light-emitting diodes based on perovskite nanocrystals with organic–inorganic mixed cations. Adv. Mater. 29, 1606405 (2017).

  29. 29.

    Si, J. et al. Efficient and high-color-purity light-emitting diodes based on in situ grown films of CsPbX3 (X=Br, I) nanoplates with controlled thicknesses. ACS Nano 11, 11100–11107 (2017).

  30. 30.

    Protesescu, L. et al. Nanocrystals of cesium lead halide perovskites (CsPbX3, X=Cl, Br, and I): novel optoelectronic materials showing bright emission with wide color gamut. Nano Lett. 15, 3692–3696 (2015).

  31. 31.

    Quintero-Bermudez, R. et al. Compositional and orientational control in metal halide perovskites of reduced dimensionality. Nat. Mater. 17, 900–907 (2018).

  32. 32.

    Byun, J. et al. Efficient visible quasi-2D perovskite light-emitting diodes. Adv. Mater. 28, 7515–7520 (2016).

  33. 33.

    Kim, Y. H. et al. Highly efficient light-emitting diodes of colloidal metal-halide perovskite nanocrystals beyond quantum size. ACS Nano 11, 6586–6593 (2017).

  34. 34.

    Sheng, X. X. et al. Polarized optoelectronics of CsPbX3 (X=Cl, Br, I) perovskite nanoplates with tunable size and thickness. Adv. Funct. Mater. 28, 1800283 (2018).

  35. 35.

    Manders, J. R. et al. Solution-processed nickel oxide hole transport layers in high efficiency polymer photovoltaic cells. Adv. Funct. Mater. 23, 2993–3001 (2013).

  36. 36.

    de Mello, J. C., Wittmann, H. F. & Friend, R. H. An improved experimental determination of external photoluminescence quantum efficiency. Adv. Mater. 9, 230–232 (1997).

  37. 37.

    Dai, X. et al. Solution-processed, high-performance light-emitting diodes based on quantum dots. Nature 515, 96–99 (2014).

Download references

Acknowledgements

This work was financially supported by the National Key R&D Program of China (2016YFB0401600), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (51522209, 91833303, 51911530155, 91733302), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (2017XZZX001-03A). D.D. and R.H.F acknowledge the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) and Zhejiang University Education Foundation Global Partnership Fund for support. This research used resources of the Advanced Photon Source, a US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science User Facility operated for the DOE Office of Science by Argonne National Laboratory under contract no. DE-AC02-06CH11357.

Author information

Y.J. and Y.L. conceived the idea and designed the experiments. Y.J. supervised the work. Y.L. and J.C. carried out the device fabrication and characterizations. Y.L., Q.Z., D.C., Z.Y. and H.Z. conducted the optical measurements. Z.H. synthesized the PBABr. K.D. and H.T. carried out the STEM and HRTEM characterizations. X.Z., L.W. and Y.R. conducted the GISAXS and GIWAXS measurements. Y.D. carried out the conductive AFM experiments. B.Z. and D.D. cross-checked the LED measurements. Y.J. and Y.L. wrote the first draft of the manuscript. J.W., D.D. and R.H.F. participated in data analysis and provided major revisions. All authors discussed the results and commented on the manuscript.

Correspondence to Yizheng Jin.

Ethics declarations

Competing interests

The authors declare no competing interests.

Additional information

Publisher’s note: Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Supplementary information

Supplementary Information

Colour coordinates, lifetime data and structural information and images.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Liu, Y., Cui, J., Du, K. et al. Efficient blue light-emitting diodes based on quantum-confined bromide perovskite nanostructures. Nat. Photonics 13, 760–764 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41566-019-0505-4

Download citation

Further reading