The ongoing interest in creating a secure global quantum network culminated recently in the demonstration of transcontinental quantum communication1. There is a pressing need to examine the properties attached to a quantum network architecture from multiple perspectives, including physics foundations2, communication security3, the efficient use of resources and innovative technological applications4,5. Here, we present an experimental realization of a five-node quantum network, in which quantum sources at two nodes deliver entangled photon pairs to three measurement nodes. With relevant events between five nodes separated space-like, we demonstrate violation of the Bell inequality and bilocal inequality6, with the locality, measurement independence and quantum source independence loopholes closed simultaneously in a quantum network. This experimental realization may be valuable for the design and implementation of future quantum networks.
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The data that support the plots within this paper and other findings of this study are available from the corresponding author upon reasonable request.
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We thank Y. Liu, Y. Li and Y.-Q. Nie for enlightening discussions, Y.-L. Mao for assistance, K.-X. Yang for help with the aerial photographs and Quantum Ctek for providing the components used in the QRNGs. This work was supported by the National Key R&D Program of China (2017YFA0303900, 2017YFA0304000), the National Natural Science Foundation of China and the Chinese Academy of Sciences.
The authors declare no competing interests.
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Supplementary notes and figures.