Recently, wavefront shaping with disordered media has demonstrated optical manipulation capabilities beyond those of conventional optics, including extended volume, aberration-free focusing and subwavelength focusing. However, translating these capabilities to useful applications has remained challenging as the input–output characteristics of the disordered media (P variables) need to be exhaustively determined via O(P) measurements. Here, we propose a paradigm shift where the disorder is specifically designed so its exact input–output characteristics are known a priori and can be used with only a few alignment steps. We implement this concept with a disorder-engineered metasurface, which exhibits additional unique features for wavefront shaping such as a large optical memory effect range in combination with a wide angular scattering range, excellent stability, and a tailorable angular scattering profile. Using this designed metasurface with wavefront shaping, we demonstrate high numerical aperture (NA > 0.5) focusing and fluorescence imaging with an estimated ~2.2 × 108 addressable points in an ~8 mm field of view.
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This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health BRAIN Initiative (U01NS090577), the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (R01AI096226), and a GIST-Caltech Collaborative Research Proposal (CG2012). Y.H. was supported by a Japan Student Services Organization (JASSO) fellowship. Y.H. and A.A. were also supported by National Science Foundation Grant 1512266 and Samsung Electronics. A.S. was supported by JSPS Overseas Research Fellowships. J.B. was supported by the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering (F31EB021153) under a Ruth L. Kirschstein National Research Service Award and by the Donna and Benjamin M. Rosen Bioengineering Center. S.M.K. was supported by the DOE ‘Light-Material Interactions in Energy Conversion’ Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the US Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences under Award no. DE-SC0001293. The device nanofabrication was performed at the Kavli Nanoscience Institute at Caltech.
The authors declare no competing financial interests.
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Jang, M., Horie, Y., Shibukawa, A. et al. Wavefront shaping with disorder-engineered metasurfaces. Nature Photon 12, 84–90 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41566-017-0078-z
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