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Broadband gate-tunable terahertz plasmons in graphene heterostructures


Graphene, a unique two-dimensional material comprising carbon in a honeycomb lattice1, has brought breakthroughs across electronics, mechanics and thermal transport, driven by the quasiparticle Dirac fermions obeying a linear dispersion2,3. Here, we demonstrate a counter-pumped all-optical difference frequency process to coherently generate and control terahertz plasmons in atomic-layer graphene with octave-level tunability and high efficiency. We leverage the inherent surface asymmetry of graphene for strong second-order nonlinear polarizability4,5, which, together with tight plasmon field confinement, enables a robust difference frequency signal at terahertz frequencies. The counter-pumped resonant process on graphene uniquely achieves both energy and momentum conservation. Consequently, we demonstrate a dual-layer graphene heterostructure with terahertz charge- and gate-tunability over an octave, from 4.7 THz to 9.4 THz, bounded only by the pump amplifier optical bandwidth. Theoretical modelling supports our single-volt-level gate tuning and optical-bandwidth-bounded 4.7 THz phase-matching measurements through the random phase approximation, with phonon coupling, saturable absorption and below the Landau damping, to predict and understand graphene plasmon physics.

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Fig. 1: Generating and controlling terahertz plasmons in graphene heterostructures via counter-pumped all-optical nonlinear processes.
Fig. 2: Observation and gate tunability of the DFG graphene plasmons.
Fig. 3: Counter-pumped phase-matching conditions.
Fig. 4: Conversion efficiency.


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The authors thank E. Kinigstein, M. Hoff, J. Lim, J. Yang, Y.-P. Lai and Y. Li for discussions and H. Liu for help with the buffered oxide etch. Chip fabrication was also supported by the Nanoelectronics Research Facilities (NRF) of UCLA. The authors acknowledge support from the National Science Foundation (DMR-1611598, CBET-1520949 and EFRI-1433541), the Office of Naval Research (N00014-15-1-2368) and the University of California National Laboratory programme. This work was also supported by the National Science Foundation of China (61705032) and the 111 project of China (B14039).

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Authors and Affiliations



B.Y. designed and led the work. B.Y., S.-W.H. and Z.X. performed optical measurements and data analysis. B.Y., C.C., J.F.F., M.Y. and D.-L.K. performed silicon nitride chip processing. Y.L., Y.H. and X.D. conducted graphene material growth and characterizations, designed and fabricated the graphene devices, and conducted the relevant electrical measurements. B.Y., Y.L. and C.C. contributed the device characterizations. C.W.W. and Y.R. supported and supervised the research. B.Y., S.H., Z.X. and Y.W. discussed and performed the theoretical analysis and simulations. B.Y., S.H., Y.R. and C.W.W. prepared the manuscript.

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Correspondence to Baicheng Yao, Xiangfeng Duan or Chee Wei Wong.

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Yao, B., Liu, Y., Huang, SW. et al. Broadband gate-tunable terahertz plasmons in graphene heterostructures. Nature Photon 12, 22–28 (2018).

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