Originating from the studies of two-dimensional condensed-matter states, the concept of topological order has recently been expanded to other fields of physics and engineering, particularly optics and photonics. Topological photonic structures have already overturned some of the traditional views on wave propagation and manipulation. The application of topological concepts to guided wave propagation has enabled novel photonic devices, such as reflection-free sharply bent waveguides, robust delay lines, spin-polarized switches and non-reciprocal devices. Discrete degrees of freedom, widely used in condensed-matter physics, such as spin and valley, are now entering the realm of photonics. In this Review, we summarize the latest advances in this highly dynamic field, with special emphasis on the experimental work on two-dimensional photonic topological structures.
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A.B.K. acknowledges the support of the National Science Foundation under grants no. CMMI-1537294 and no. EFRI-1641069. G.S. acknowledges the support of the Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR) under a grant no. FA9550-15-1-0075, and of the Army Research Office (ARO) under a grant no. W911NF-17-1-0479.
The authors declare no competing financial interests.
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Khanikaev, A.B., Shvets, G. Two-dimensional topological photonics. Nature Photon 11, 763–773 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41566-017-0048-5
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