Skip to main content

Thank you for visiting You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser (or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer). In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript.

High optical nonlinear efficiency achieved by compensating for nanoscale inhomogeneity

Nanoscale inhomogeneity is a major barrier to achieving high nonlinear efficiency in nanophotonic lithium-niobate waveguides. Using adapted poling in the waveguide — to circumvent the inhomogeneity and restore ideal phase matching — is shown to break through this efficiency limit.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution

Access options

Rent or buy this article

Prices vary by article type



Prices may be subject to local taxes which are calculated during checkout

Fig. 1: Adapted poling in nanophotonics lithium-niobate waveguides improves efficiency for nonlinear processes.


  1. Boes, A. et al. Lithium niobate photonics: Unlocking the electromagnetic spectrum. Science 379, eabj4396 (2023). A review article that presents an overview and the state-of-the-art of TFLN photonics.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  2. Wang, C. et al. Ultrahigh-efficiency wavelength conversion in nanophotonic periodically poled lithium niobate waveguides. Optica 5, 1438–1441 (2018). This paper reports a nonlinear strength for periodically poled TFLN that outperforms conventional lithium niobate crystals.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  3. Rao, A. et al. Actively-monitored periodic-poling in thin-film lithium niobate photonic waveguides with ultrahigh nonlinear conversion efficiency of 4600 %W−1cm−2. Opt. Express 27, 25920–25930 (2019). This paper reports a high value of nonlinear strength from periodically poled TFLN.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  4. Zhao, J. et al. Shallow-etched thin-film lithium niobate waveguides for highly-efficient second-harmonic generation. Opt. Express 28, 19669–19682 (2020). This paper reports a high value of nonlinear efficiency from periodically poled TFLN.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  5. Chen, P.-K., Briggs, I., Hou, S. & Fan, L. Ultra-broadband quadrature squeezing with thin-film lithium niobate nanophotonics. Opt. Lett. 47, 1506–1509 (2022). This paper reports squeezed-light generation from periodically poled TFLN, and was the starting point for our adapted-poling project.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

Download references

Additional information

Publisher’s note Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

This is a summary of: Chen, P.-K. et al. Adapted poling to break the nonlinear efficiency limit in nanophotonic lithium niobate waveguides. Nat. Nanotechnol. (2023).

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

High optical nonlinear efficiency achieved by compensating for nanoscale inhomogeneity. Nat. Nanotechnol. 19, 9–10 (2024).

Download citation

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI:


Quick links

Nature Briefing

Sign up for the Nature Briefing newsletter — what matters in science, free to your inbox daily.

Get the most important science stories of the day, free in your inbox. Sign up for Nature Briefing