The combination of lithographic methods with two-dimensional DNA origami self-assembly has led, among others, to the development of photonic crystal cavity arrays and the exploration of sensing nanoarrays where molecular devices are patterned on the sub-micrometre scale. Here we extend this concept to the third dimension by mounting three-dimensional DNA origami onto nanopatterned substrates, followed by silicification to provide hybrid DNA–silica structures exhibiting mechanical and chemical stability and achieving feature sizes in the sub-10-nm regime. Our versatile and scalable method relying on self-assembly at ambient temperatures offers the potential to three-dimensionally position any inorganic and organic components compatible with DNA origami nanoarchitecture, demonstrated here with gold nanoparticles. This way of nanotexturing could provide a route for the low-cost production of complex and three-dimensionally patterned surfaces and integrated devices designed on the molecular level and reaching macroscopic dimensions.
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We thank C. Obermayer for cleanroom assistance and S. Kempter for assistance with TEM. Besides all the group members, we thank N. Vogel (FAU Erlangen-Nürnberg) for the helpful discussions. I.V.M., G.P., X.Y. and T.L. acknowledge funding from the ERC consolidator grant ‘DNA Funs’ (Project ID: 818635). E.E., V.R. and T.L. further acknowledge support from the cluster of excellence e-conversion EXC 2089/1-390776260. This work was funded by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) and the Free State of Bavaria under the Excellence Strategy of the Federal Government and the Länder through the ONE MUNICH Projects Munich Multiscale Biofabrication and Enabling Quantum Communication and Imaging Applications.
The authors declare no competing interests.
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Martynenko, I.V., Erber, E., Ruider, V. et al. Site-directed placement of three-dimensional DNA origami. Nat. Nanotechnol. (2023). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41565-023-01487-z