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Coulomb-mediated antibunching of an electron pair surfing on sound


Electron flying qubits are envisioned as potential information links within a quantum computer, but also promise—like photonic approaches—to serve as self-standing quantum processing units. In contrast to their photonic counterparts, electron-quantum-optics implementations are subject to Coulomb interactions, which provide a direct route to entangle the orbital or spin degree of freedom. However, controlled interaction of flying electrons at the single-particle level has not yet been established experimentally. Here we report antibunching of a pair of single electrons that is synchronously shuttled through a circuit of coupled quantum rails by means of a surface acoustic wave. The in-flight partitioning process exhibits a reciprocal gating effect which allows us to ascribe the observed repulsion predominantly to Coulomb interaction. Our single-shot experiment marks an important milestone on the route to realize a controlled-phase gate for in-flight quantum manipulations.

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Fig. 1: Experimental set-up.
Fig. 2: Delay-controlled sending and in-flight partitioning.
Fig. 3: Antibunching at synchronized transport.
Fig. 4: Coulomb-induced detuning and electron-pair partitioning.
Fig. 5: Barrier dependence of antibunching rate.

Data availability

The data that support the findings of this study are available online from the Zenodo repository at Source data are provided with this paper.


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We acknowledge fruitful discussions with V. Kashcheyevs and E. Pavlovska. J.W. acknowledges the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under Marie Skłodowska-Curie grant agreement number 754303. A.R. acknowledges financial support from ANR-21-CMAQ-0003, France 2030, project QuantForm-UGA. T.K. and S.T. acknowledge financial support from JSPS KAKENHI grant number 20H02559. W.P., J.S. and H.-S.S. acknowledge support from Korea NRF via the SRC Center for Quantum Coherence in Condensed Matter (grant number 2016R1A5A1008184). C.B. acknowledges financial support from the French Agence Nationale de la Recherche (ANR), project QUABS ANR-21-CE47-0013-01. This project has received funding from the European Union’s H2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 862683 ‘UltraFastNano’.

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Authors and Affiliations



J.W. performed the experiment with support from H.E., A.R. and S.O. and with input from T.K., N.-H.K., M.U., T.M., H.-S.S., H.S., S.T. and C.B. J.W. fabricated the sample. A.L. and A.D.W. provided the high-quality GaAs/GaAlAs heterostructure. X.W. developed the Bayesian model with support from H.E. and J.W. W.P., J.S. and H.-S.S. developed the exact diagonalization method. J.W. and H.E. wrote the manuscript with feedback from all authors. S.T. and C.B. supervised the experimental work.

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Correspondence to Christopher Bäuerle.

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Supplementary sections 1–7 and Figs. 1–7.

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Wang, J., Edlbauer, H., Richard, A. et al. Coulomb-mediated antibunching of an electron pair surfing on sound. Nat. Nanotechnol. 18, 721–726 (2023).

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