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Electrochemically modulated interaction of MXenes with microwaves


Dynamic control of electromagnetic wave jamming is a notable technological challenge for protecting electronic devices working at gigahertz frequencies. Foam materials can adjust the reflection and absorption of microwaves, enabling a tunable electromagnetic interference shielding capability, but their thickness of several millimetres hinders their application in integrated electronics. Here we show a method for modulating the reflection and absorption of incident electromagnetic waves using various submicrometre-thick MXene thin films. The reversible tunability of electromagnetic interference shielding effectiveness is realized by electrochemically driven ion intercalation and de-intercalation; this results in charge transfer efficiency with different electrolytes, accompanied by expansion and shrinkage of the MXene layer spacing. We finally demonstrate an irreversible electromagnetic interference shielding alertor through electrochemical oxidation of MXene films. In contrast with static electromagnetic interference shielding, our method offers opportunities to achieve active modulation that can adapt to demanding environments.

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Fig. 1: Electrochemically modulated EMI shielding behaviours of MXene films.
Fig. 2: Electrochemical control of the reflection and absorption of microwaves, and the mechanism of bidirectional tunability.
Fig. 3: Thickness-dependent behaviour and cycling stability.
Fig. 4: An EMI shielding ‘switch’ with MXene.

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All relevant data are available from the authors on reasonable request, and/or are included within the manuscript and its Supplementary Information. Source data are provided with this paper.


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This work was supported by the US National Science Foundation (grants ECCS-2034114 and DMR-2041050; Y.G.) and Murata Manufacturing (Japan). X-ray diffraction analysis was performed using instruments in the Materials Characterization Core at Drexel University.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations



M.H. and Y.G. conceived this study. M.H. and D.Z. designed and performed the shield testing. M.H., D.Z. and B.M. synthesized the MXenes and fabricated the MXene films. C.E.S. synthesized the MAX phases. C.E.S. and D.Z. performed the X-ray diffraction measurements. T.Z. performed the SEM observation. D.Z., R.(J.)W. and K.S. contributed to the Raman investigations. M.H. wrote the manuscript with input from all coauthors under supervision from Y.G.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Yury Gogotsi.

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Competing interests

The work is subjected to a patent application (#63/366,852) by M.H., Y.G. and D.Z. The authors declare no other competing interests.

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Nature Nanotechnology thanks Majid Beidaghi and the other, anonymous, reviewer(s) for their contribution to the peer review of this work.

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Supplementary information

Supplementary Information

Supplementary Table 1 and Figs. 1–12.

Supplementary Video 1

Active EMI shielding change of the V2CTx film.

Supplementary Video 2

Active d-spacing change of the V2CTx film.

Source data

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Statistical source data and image.

Source Data Fig. 2

Statistical source data.

Source Data Fig. 3

Statistical source data.

Source Data Fig. 4

Statistical source data.

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Han, M., Zhang, D., Shuck, C.E. et al. Electrochemically modulated interaction of MXenes with microwaves. Nat. Nanotechnol. 18, 373–379 (2023).

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