Skip to main content

Thank you for visiting You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser (or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer). In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript.

Superconducting devices

Graphene amplifier reaches the quantum limit

Graphene Josephson junctions enable parametric amplification at the quantum noise limit with gate-tuneable working frequency.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution

Access options

Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.


All prices are NET prices.

Fig. 1: Parametric amplification.


  1. Caves, C. M. Phys. Rev. D 26, 1817–1839 (1982).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Yurke, B. et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 764–767 (1988).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  3. Castellanos-Beltran, M. A. & Lehnert, K. W. Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 083509 (2007).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Aumentado, J. IEEE Microwave Mag. 21, 45–59 (2020).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Butseraen, G. et al. Nat. Nanotechnol. (2022).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Sarkar, J. et al. Nat. Nanotechnol. (2022).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Rugar, D. & Grütter, P. Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 699–702 (1991).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  8. Haller, R. et al. Phys. Rev. Research 4, 013198 (2022).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  9. Baselmans, J. J. A., Morpurgo, A. F., van Wees, B. J. & Klapwijk, T. M. Nature 397, 43–45 (1999).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  10. Wang, J. I.-J. et al. Nat. Nanotechnol. 14, 120–125 (2019).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  11. Hays, M. et al. Science 373, 430–433 (2021).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  12. Walsh, E. D. et al. Science 372, 409–412 (2021).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  13. Fornieri, A. et al. Nature 569, 89–92 (2019).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Kin Chung Fong.

Ethics declarations

Competing interests

The author declares no competing interests.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Fong, K.C. Graphene amplifier reaches the quantum limit. Nat. Nanotechnol. 17, 1128–1129 (2022).

Download citation

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI:


Quick links

Find nanotechnology articles, nanomaterial data and patents all in one place. Visit Nano by Nature Research