Nonlinear optical fibres have been employed for a vast number of applications, including optical frequency conversion, ultrafast laser and optical communication1,2,3,4. In current manufacturing technologies, nonlinearity is realized by the injection of nonlinear materials into fibres5,6,7 or the fabrication of microstructured fibres8,9,10. Both strategies, however, suffer from either low optical nonlinearity or poor design flexibility. Here, we report the direct growth of MoS2, a highly nonlinear two-dimensional material11, onto the internal walls of a SiO2 optical fibre. This growth is realized via a two-step chemical vapour deposition method, where a solid precursor is pre-deposited to guarantee a homogeneous feedstock before achieving uniform two-dimensional material growth along the entire fibre walls. By using the as-fabricated 25-cm-long fibre, both second- and third-harmonic generation could be enhanced by ~300 times compared with monolayer MoS2/silica. Propagation losses remain at ~0.1 dB cm–1 for a wide frequency range. In addition, we demonstrate an all-fibre mode-locked laser (~6 mW output, ~500 fs pulse width and ~41 MHz repetition rate) by integrating the two-dimensional-material-embedded optical fibre as a saturable absorber. Initial tests show that our fabrication strategy is amenable to other transition metal dichalcogenides, making these embedded fibres versatile for several all-fibre nonlinear optics and optoelectronics applications.
Subscribe to Journal
Get full journal access for 1 year
only $14.08 per issue
All prices are NET prices.
VAT will be added later in the checkout.
Rent or Buy article
Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.
All prices are NET prices.
Cotter, D. et al. Nonlinear optics for high-speed digital information processing. Science 286, 1523–1528 (1999).
Agrawal, G. P. Nonlinear fiber optics: its history and recent progress. J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 28, A1–A10 (2011).
Granzow, N. et al. Supercontinuum generation in chalcogenide-silica step-index fibers. Opt. Express 19, 21003–21010 (2011).
Markos, C. et al. Hybrid photonic-crystal fiber. Rev. Mod. Phys. 89, 045003 (2017).
Sazio, P. J. et al. Microstructured optical fibers as high-pressure microfluidic reactors. Science 311, 1583–1586 (2006).
Abouraddy, A. et al. Towards multimaterial multifunctional fibres that see, hear, sense and communicate. Nat. Mater. 6, 336–347 (2007).
Eggleton, B. J., Luther-Davies, B. & Richardson, K. Chalcogenide photonics. Nat. Photon. 5, 141–148 (2011).
Skryabin, D., Luan, F., Knight, J. & Russell, P. S. J. Soliton self-frequency shift cancellation in photonic crystal fibers. Science 301, 1705–1708 (2003).
Dudley, J. M., Genty, G. & Coen, S. Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber. Rev. Mod. Phys. 78, 1135–1184 (2006).
Dudley, J. M. & Taylor, J. R. Ten years of nonlinear optics in photonic crystal fibre. Nat. Photon. 3, 85–90 (2009).
Autere, A. et al. Nonlinear optics with 2D layered materials. Adv. Mater. 30, 1705963 (2018).
Li, Y. et al. Probing symmetry properties of few-layer MoS2 and h-BN by optical second-harmonic generation. Nano Lett. 13, 3329–3333 (2013).
Liu, X., Guo, Q. & Qiu, J. Emerging low‐dimensional materials for nonlinear optics and ultrafast photonics. Adv. Mater. 29, 1605886 (2017).
Liu, H. et al. High-harmonic generation from an atomically thin semiconductor. Nat. Phys. 13, 262–265 (2017).
Wang, F. et al. Wideband-tuneable, nanotube mode-locked, fibre laser. Nat. Nanotechnol. 3, 738–742 (2008).
Bao, Q. et al. Broadband graphene polarizer. Nat. Photon. 5, 411–415 (2011).
Lee, E. J. et al. Active control of all-fibre graphene devices with electrical gating. Nat. Commun. 6, 6851 (2015).
Chen, K. et al. Graphene photonic crystal fibre with strong and tunable light–matter interaction. Nat. Photon. 13, 754–759 (2019).
Van Der Zande, A. M. et al. Grains and grain boundaries in highly crystalline monolayer molybdenum disulphide. Nat. Mater. 12, 554–561 (2013).
Huang, C. et al. Lateral heterojunctions within monolayer MoSe2–WSe2 semiconductors. Nat. Mater. 13, 1096–1101 (2014).
Li, M.-Y. et al. Epitaxial growth of a monolayer WSe2-MoS2 lateral p-n junction with an atomically sharp interface. Science 349, 524–528 (2015).
Gao, Y. et al. Large-area synthesis of high-quality and uniform monolayer WS2 on reusable Au foils. Nat. Commun. 6, 8569 (2015).
Pistorius, C. W. Phase diagrams of sodium tungstate and sodium molybdate to 45 kbar. J. Chem. Phys. 44, 4532–4537 (1966).
Yu, H. et al. Wafer-scale growth and transfer of highly-oriented monolayer MoS2 continuous films. ACS Nano 11, 12001–12007 (2017).
Lee, C. et al. Anomalous lattice vibrations of single- and few-layer MoS2. ACS Nano 4, 2695–2700 (2010).
Liu, K.-K. et al. Growth of large-area and highly crystalline MoS2 thin layers on insulating substrates. Nano Lett. 12, 1538–1544 (2012).
Shen, Y.-R. The Principles of Nonlinear Optics (Wiley, 1984).
Chen, J. H. et al. Tunable and enhanced light emission in hybrid WS2-optical-fiber-nanowire structures. Light Sci. Appl. 8, 8 (2019).
Jiang, B. et al. High-efficiency second-order nonlinear processes in an optical microfibre assisted by few-layer GaSe. Light Sci. Appl. 9, 63 (2020).
Zhang, H. et al. Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) as a broadband saturable absorber for ultra-fast photonics. Opt. Express 22, 7249–7260 (2014).
This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (51991340, 51991342, 51991344 and 51421002); National Key R&D Program of China (2016YFA0300903 and 2016YFA0300804); Beijing Natural Science Foundation (JQ19004); Beijing Excellent Talents Training Support (2017000026833ZK11); Beijing Graphene Innovation Program (Z181100004818003); Beijing Municipal Science & Technology Commission (Z191100007219005); the Key R&D Program of Guangdong Province (2019B010931001, 2020B010189001, 2018B010109009 and 2018B030327001); Guangdong Innovative and Entrepreneurial Research Team Program (2016ZT06D348); Bureau of Industry and Information Technology of Shenzhen (graphene platform 201901161512); the Science, Technology and Innovation Commission of Shenzhen Municipality (KYTDPT20181011104202253); Program of Chinese Academy of Sciences (ZDYZ2015-1 and XDB33030200); National Postdoctoral Program for Innovative Talents (BX20180013 and BX20190016); the Academy of Finland; the ERC (834742); the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme (820423, S2QUIP); and China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (2019M660001, 2019M660280 and 2019M660281). We acknowledge the Electron Microscopy Laboratory in Peking University for the use of their electron microscope.
The authors declare no competing interests.
Peer review information Nature Nanotechnology thanks Baohua Jia, Zhiyi Wei and the other, anonymous, reviewer(s) for their contribution to the peer review of this work.
Publisher’s note Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
About this article
Cite this article
Zuo, Y., Yu, W., Liu, C. et al. Optical fibres with embedded two-dimensional materials for ultrahigh nonlinearity. Nat. Nanotechnol. (2020). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41565-020-0770-x