Heterostructures combining a thin layer of quantum emitters and planar nanostructures enable custom-tailored photoluminescence in an integrated fashion. Here, we demonstrate a photonic Rashba effect from valley excitons in a WSe2 monolayer, which is incorporated into a photonic crystal slab with geometric phase defects, that is, into a Berry-phase defective photonic crystal. This phenomenon of spin-split dispersion in momentum space arises from a coherent geometric phase pickup assisted by the Berry-phase defect mode. The valley excitons effectively interact with the defects for site-controlled excitation, photoluminescence enhancement and spin-dependent manipulation. Specifically, the spin-dependent branches of photoluminescence in momentum space originate from valley excitons with opposite helicities and evidence the valley separation at room temperature. To further demonstrate the versatility of the Berry-phase defective photonic crystals, we use this concept to separate opposite spin states of quantum dot emission. This spin-enabled manipulation of quantum emitters may enable highly efficient metasurfaces for customized planar sources with spin-polarized directional emission.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution
Open Access articles citing this article.
Scientific Reports Open Access 07 January 2022
Nature Communications Open Access 14 June 2021
Access Nature and 54 other Nature Portfolio journals
Get Nature+, our best-value online-access subscription
$29.99 / 30 days
cancel any time
Subscribe to this journal
Receive 12 print issues and online access
$259.00 per year
only $21.58 per issue
Rent or buy this article
Prices vary by article type
Prices may be subject to local taxes which are calculated during checkout
The data that support the plots within this paper and other findings of this study are available from the corresponding author upon reasonable request.
Schuller, J. A. et al. Orientation of luminescent excitons in layered nanomaterials. Nat. Nanotechnol. 8, 271–276 (2013).
Empedocles, S. A., Neuhauser, R. & Bawendi, M. G. Three-dimensional orientation measurements of symmetric single chromophores using polarization microscopy. Nature 399, 126–130 (1999).
Englund, D. et al. Controlling the spontaneous emission rate of single quantum dots in a two-dimensional photonic crystal. Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 013904 (2005).
Staude, I., Pertsch, T. & Kivshar, Y. S. All-dielectric resonant meta-optics lightens up. ACS Photonics 6, 802–814 (2019).
Cihan, A. F., Curto, A. G., Raza, S., Kik, P. G. & Brongersma, M. L. Silicon Mie resonators for highly directional light emission from monolayer MoS2. Nat. Photon. 12, 284–290 (2018).
de Leo, E. et al. Polarization multiplexing of fluorescent emission using multiresonant plasmonic antennas. ACS Nano 11, 12167–12173 (2017).
Curto, A. G. et al. Unidirectional emission of a quantum dot coupled to a nanoantenna. Science 329, 930–933 (2010).
Gong, S.-H., Alpeggiani, F., Sciacca, B., Garnett, E. C. & Kuipers, L. Nanoscale chiral valley-photon interface through optical spin-orbit coupling. Science 359, 443–447 (2018).
Sun, L. et al. Separation of valley excitons in a MoS2 monolayer using a subwavelength asymmetric groove array. Nat. Photon. 13, 180–184 (2019).
Bomzon, Z., Biener, G., Kleiner, V. & Hasman, E. Space-variant Pancharatnam-Berry phase optical elements with computer-generated subwavelength gratings. Opt. Lett. 27, 1141–1143 (2002).
Yu, N. et al. Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction. Science 334, 333–337 (2011).
Kildishev, A. V., Boltasseva, A. & Shalaev, V. M. Planar photonics with metasurfaces. Science 339, 1232009 (2013).
Maguid, E. et al. Photonic spin-controlled multifunctional shared-aperture antenna array. Science 352, 1202–1206 (2016).
Wang, Q. et al. Optically reconfigurable metasurfaces and photonic devices based on phase change materials. Nat. Photon. 10, 60–65 (2016).
Shaltout, A. M., Shalaev, V. M. & Brongersma, M. L. Spatiotemporal light control with active metasurfaces. Science 364, eaat3100 (2019).
Stav, T. et al. Quantum entanglement of the spin and orbital angular momentum of photons using metamaterials. Science 361, 1101–1104 (2018).
Pors, A., Albrektsen, O., Radko, I. P. & Bozhevolnyi, S. I. Gap plasmon-based metasurfaces for total control of reflected light. Sci. Rep. 3, 2155 (2013).
Lin, D., Fan, P., Hasman, E. & Brongersma, M. L. Dielectric gradient metasurface optical elements. Science 345, 298–302 (2014).
Bliokh, K. Y., Rodríguez-Fortuño, F. J., Nori, F. & Zayats, A. V. Spin-orbit interactions of light. Nat. Photon. 9, 796–808 (2015).
Berry, M. V. Quantal phase factors accompanying adiabatic changes. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 392, 45–57 (1984).
Wang, B., Rong, K., Maguid, E., Kleiner, V. & Hasman, E. Probing nanoscale fluctuation of ferromagnetic meta-atoms with a stochastic photonic spin Hall effect. Nat. Nanotechnol. 15, 450–456 (2020).
Wang, B. et al. Photonic topological spin Hall effect mediated by vortex pairs. Phys. Rev. Lett. 123, 266101 (2019).
Dahan, N., Gorodetski, Y., Frischwasser, K., Kleiner, V. & Hasman, E. Geometric Doppler effect: spin-split dispersion of thermal radiation. Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 136402 (2010).
Shitrit, N. et al. Spin-optical metamaterial route to spin-controlled photonics. Science 340, 724–726 (2013).
Rashba, E. I. Properties of semiconductors with an extremum loop. 1. Cyclotron and combinational resonance in a magnetic field perpendicular to the plane of the loop. Sov. Phys. Solid State 2, 1109–1122 (1960).
Ishizaka, K. et al. Giant Rashba-type spin splitting in bulk BiTeI. Nat. Mater. 10, 521–526 (2011).
Johnson, S. G., Fan, S., Villeneuve, P. R., Joannopoulos, J. D. & Kolodziejski, L. A. Guided modes in photonic crystal slabs. Phys. Rev. B 60, 5751–5758 (1999).
Yariv, A., Xu, Y., Lee, R. K. & Scherer, A. Coupled-resonator optical waveguide: a proposal and analysis. Opt. Lett. 24, 711–713 (1999).
Bayindir, M., Temelkuran, B. & Ozbay, E. Tight-binding description of the coupled defect modes in three-dimensional photonic crystals. Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 2140–2143 (2000).
Richter, S. et al. Periodically arranged point defects in two-dimensional photonic crystals. Phys. Rev. B 70, 193302 (2004).
Goldstein, D. H. & Collett, E. Polarized Light 2nd edn (Marcel Dekker, 2003).
Brus, L. E. Electron-electron and electron-hole interactions in small semiconductor crystallites: the size dependence of the lowest excited electronic state. J. Chem. Phys. 80, 4403–4409 (1984).
Garcia-Adeva, A. Band gap atlas for photonic crystals having the symmetry of the kagomé and pyrochlore lattices. New J. Phys. 8, 86 (2006).
Novotny, L. & Hecht, B. Principles of Nano-optics (Cambridge Univ. Press, 2006).
Neugebauer, M., Banzer, P. & Nechayev, S. Emission of circularly polarized light by a linear dipole. Sci. Adv. 5, eaav7588 (2019).
Arbabi, A., Horie, Y., Bagheri, M. & Faraon, A. Dielectric metasurfaces for complete control of phase and polarization with subwavelength spatial resolution and high transmission. Nat. Nanotechnol. 10, 937–943 (2015).
Baranov, D. G. et al. All-dielectric nanophotonics: the quest for better materials and fabrication techniques. Optica 4, 814–825 (2017).
We acknowledge financial support from the Israel Science Foundation (ISF); the US Air Force Office of Scientific Research (FA9550-18-1-0208) through their programme on Photonic Metamaterials; the Israel Ministry of Science, Technology and Space; the United States–Israel Binational Science Foundation (BSF); and, in part, the Technion via an Aly Kaufman Fellowship. The fabrication was performed at the Micro-Nano Fabrication & Printing Unit (MNF&PU), Technion.
The authors declare no competing interests.
Peer review information Nature Nanotechnology thanks Alexandr Krasnok and the other, anonymous, reviewer(s) for their contribution to the peer review of this work.
Publisher’s note Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
About this article
Cite this article
Rong, K., Wang, B., Reuven, A. et al. Photonic Rashba effect from quantum emitters mediated by a Berry-phase defective photonic crystal. Nat. Nanotechnol. 15, 927–933 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41565-020-0758-6
This article is cited by
Nature Photonics (2023)
Nature Materials (2023)
Nature Materials (2023)
Scientific Reports (2022)
Nature Communications (2021)