Confining molecules can fundamentally change their chemical and physical properties. Confinement effects are considered instrumental at various stages of the origins of life, and life continues to rely on layers of compartmentalization to maintain an out-of-equilibrium state and efficiently synthesize complex biomolecules under mild conditions. As interest in synthetic confined systems grows, we are realizing that the principles governing reactivity under confinement are the same in abiological systems as they are in nature. In this Review, we categorize the ways in which nanoconfinement effects impact chemical reactivity in synthetic systems. Under nanoconfinement, chemical properties can be modulated to increase reaction rates, enhance selectivity and stabilize reactive species. Confinement effects also lead to changes in physical properties. The fluorescence of light emitters, the colours of dyes and electronic communication between electroactive species can all be tuned under confinement. Within each of these categories, we elucidate design principles and strategies that are widely applicable across a range of confined systems, specifically highlighting examples of different nanocompartments that influence reactivity in similar ways.
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This work was supported by the European Research Council (grant no. 336080). A.B.G. acknowledges funding from the Mortimer B. Zuckerman STEM Leadership Program.
The authors declare no competing interests.
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Grommet, A.B., Feller, M. & Klajn, R. Chemical reactivity under nanoconfinement. Nat. Nanotechnol. 15, 256–271 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41565-020-0652-2
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