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Neuromorphic nanoelectronic materials

Abstract

Memristive and nanoionic devices have recently emerged as leading candidates for neuromorphic computing architectures. While top-down fabrication based on conventional bulk materials has enabled many early neuromorphic devices and circuits, bottom-up approaches based on low-dimensional nanomaterials have shown novel device functionality that often better mimics a biological neuron. In addition, the chemical, structural and compositional tunability of low-dimensional nanomaterials coupled with the permutational flexibility enabled by van der Waals heterostructures offers significant opportunities for artificial neural networks. In this Review, we present a critical survey of emerging neuromorphic devices and architectures enabled by quantum dots, metal nanoparticles, polymers, nanotubes, nanowires, two-dimensional layered materials and van der Waals heterojunctions with a particular emphasis on bio-inspired device responses that are uniquely enabled by low-dimensional topology, quantum confinement and interfaces. We also provide a forward-looking perspective on the opportunities and challenges of neuromorphic nanoelectronic materials in comparison with more mature technologies based on traditional bulk electronic materials.

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Fig. 1: Synaptic transistors and memristive systems.
Fig. 2: Zero-dimensional nanomaterials for electronic and optoelectronic synapses.
Fig. 3: One-dimensional nanomaterials for neuromorphic circuits.
Fig. 4: Memristive systems from 2D nanomaterials.
Fig. 5: Device metrics and mechanisms.
Fig. 6: Biomimetic and biocompatible neuromorphic systems.

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Acknowledgements

The work was supported by the National Science Foundation Materials Research Science and Engineering Center at Northwestern University (NSF DMR-1720139).

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Correspondence to Mark C. Hersam.

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Peer review information Nature Nanotechnology thanks Yuchao Yang and the other, anonymous, reviewer(s) for their contribution to the peer review of this work.

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Sangwan, V.K., Hersam, M.C. Neuromorphic nanoelectronic materials. Nat. Nanotechnol. 15, 517–528 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41565-020-0647-z

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