a, Representative H&E stained images of major organs including liver, kidney, heart, lung and spleen in different groups after two treatment cycles. The experiment was repeated three times with similar results. Scale bars, 50 μm. b-j, Serum biochemistry in obese mice after different treatments (n = 7 mice). Serum TP (b), ALT (c) and AST (d) reflect hepatic function. Serum uric acid (e), urea (f) and creatinine (g) reflect renal function. Serum CK (h), CK-MB (i) and LDH (j) reflect cardiac function. Asterisks in c and d denote significant differences compared with the control, RSG, ZnPcS4, RSG&ZnPcS4 and Pat-HBc/ZnPcS4 groups, p < 0.05. k-m, Serum IgG (k), IL-4 (l) and IFN-γ (m) levels indicative of cellular and humoral immune responses in obese mice at designated intervals after tail-vein injection with PBS, OVA, HBc or Pat-HBc (n = 6 mice). Time points for the first injection and the second injection were set on day 0 and day 7, respectively. Asterisks denote a significant difference from the PBS group, p < 0.05. Hash signs denote significant differences compared with the OVA and HBc groups, p < 0.05. All statistical data are expressed as mean ± s.d. Statistical significance was assessed via a one-way ANOVA with Duncan post-hoc test.