Skip to main content

Thank you for visiting You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser (or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer). In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript.


Finally, a simple solution to biofouling


Composite electrodes made of nanowires and bovine serum albumin enable electrochemical protein biosensors that can be used in whole blood for a month or more.

Your institute does not have access to this article

Access options

Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.


All prices are NET prices.

Fig. 1: The nanocomposite electrode.


  1. Barfidokht, A. & Gooding, J. J. Electroanalysis 26, 1182–1196 (2014).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Arroyo-Curras, N. et al. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 114, 645–650 (2017).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Kelley, S. O. ACS Sens. 2, 193–197 (2017).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Del Río, J. S., Henry, O. Y. F., Jolly, P. & Ingber, D. E. Nat. Nanotechnol. (2019).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Liu, G. Z., Paddon-Row, M. N. & Gooding, J. J. Chem. Commun. 3870–3872 (2008).

  6. Taufik, S. et al. J. Electroanal. Chem. 779, 229–2351 (2016).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Liu, G. Z., Iyengar, S. G. & Gooding, J. J. Electroanalysis 24, 1509–1516 (2012).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Liu, G. Z., Iyengar, S. G. & Gooding, J. J. Electroanalysis 25, 881–887 (2013).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Ostuni, E. et al. Langmuir 17, 6336–6343 (2001).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Gui, A. L., Luais, E., Peterson, J. R. & Gooding, J. J. ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 5, 4827–4835 (2013).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Jiang, C. et al. ACS Sens. 1, 1432–1438 (2016).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Patel, J. et al. Anal. Chem. 85, 11610–11618 (2013).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to John Justin Gooding.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Gooding, J.J. Finally, a simple solution to biofouling. Nat. Nanotechnol. 14, 1089–1090 (2019).

Download citation

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI:


Quick links

Find nanotechnology articles, nanomaterial data and patents all in one place. Visit Nano by Nature Research