We demonstrate the translation of a low-cost, non-precious metal cobalt phosphide (CoP) catalyst from 1 cm2 lab-scale experiments to a commercial-scale 86 cm2 polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) electrolyser. A two-step bulk synthesis was adopted to produce CoP on a high-surface-area carbon support that was readily integrated into an industrial PEM electrolyser fabrication process. The performance of the CoP was compared head to head with a platinum-based PEM under the same operating conditions (400 psi, 50 °C). CoP was found to be active and stable, operating at 1.86 A cm−2 for >1,700 h of continuous hydrogen production while providing substantial material cost savings relative to platinum. This work illustrates a potential pathway for non-precious hydrogen evolution catalysts developed in past decades to translate to commercial applications.
Subscribe to Journal
Get full journal access for 1 year
only $4.92 per issue
All prices are NET prices.
VAT will be added later in the checkout.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Rent or Buy article
Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.
All prices are NET prices.
The X-ray diffraction reference pattern is available from the Materials Project database under the ID mp-22270. Source data for figures is provided along with the paper as a supplemental file. Additional data that supports the plots within this paper and other findings of this study are available from the corresponding author upon reasonable request.
Bertuccioli, L. et al. Development of Water Electrolysis in the European Union (Fuel cells and hydrogen joint undertaking, 2014).
Vesborg, P. C. K. & Jaramillo, T. F. RSC Adv. 2, 7933–7947 (2012).
Hinnemann, B. et al. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 36, 5308–5309 (2005).
Jaramillo, T. F. et al. Science 317, 100–102 (2007).
Callejas, J. F., Read, C. G., Roske, C. W., Lewis, N. S. & Schaak, R. E. Chem. Mater. 28, 6017–6044 (2016).
Shi, Y. & Zhang, B. Chem. Soc. Rev. 45, 1529–1541 (2016).
Kibsgaard, J. & Jaramillo, T. F. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 53, 14433–14437 (2014).
Mccrory, C. C. L. et al. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 137, 4347–4357 (2015).
Corrales-Sánchez, T., Ampurdanés, J. & Urakawa, A. Int. J. Hydrog. Energy 39, 20837–20843 (2014).
Ng, J. W. D. et al. ChemSusChem. 8, 3512–3519 (2015).
Di Giovanni, C. et al. ACS Catal. 6, 2626–2631 (2016).
Sun, X. et al. Catalysts 8, 657 (2018).
Anantharaj, S. et al. ACS Catal. 6, 8069–8097 (2016).
Xiao, P., Chen, W. & Wang, X. Adv. Energy Mater. 5, 1–13 (2015).
Liu, W. et al. Nat. Commun. 7, 1–9 (2016).
Popczun, E. J., Read, C. G., Roske, C. W., Lewis, N. S. & Schaak, R. E. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 53, 5427–5430 (2014).
Kibsgaard, J. et al. Energy Environ. Sci. 8, 3022–3029 (2015).
Hellstern, T. R., Benck, J. D., Kibsgaard, J., Hahn, C. & Jaramillo, T. F. Adv. Energy Mater. 6, 1501758 (2016).
Wu, Z., Huang, L., Liu, H. & Wang, H. ACS Catal. 9, 2956–2961 (2019).
Saadi, F. H. et al. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 139, 12927–12930 (2017).
Yang, H., Zhang, Y., Hu, F. & Wang, Q. Nano Lett. 15, 7616–7620 (2015).
Zhou, D. et al. J. Mater. Chem. A 4, 10114–10117 (2016).
Martens, S. et al. J. Power Sources 392, 274–284 (2018).
Alia, S. M. et al. J. Electrochem. Soc. 163, F3105–F3112 (2016).
Alia, S. M. & Pivovar, B. S. ACS Catal. 8, 2111–2120 (2018).
Weiß, A. et al. J. Electrochem. Soc. 166, 487–497 (2019).
Zhang, Y., Gao, L., Hensen, E. J. M. & Hofmann, J. P. ACS Energy Lett. 3, 1360–1365 (2018).
Ledendecker, M. et al. Angew. Chem. 129, 9899–9903 (2017).
James, B., Colella, W., Moton, J., Saur, G. & Ramsden, T. PEM Electrolysis H2A Production Case Study Documentation (US Department of Energy Fuel Cell Technologies Office, 2013).
Babic, U., Suermann, M., Büchi, F. N., Gubler, L. & Schmidt, T. J. J. Electrochem. Soc. 164, F387–F399 (2017).
H2@Scale Workshop Report (National Renewale Energy Laboratory, 2017).
We acknowledge the Department of Defence Small Business Innovation Research Phase I (contract no. N00024-17-P-4507; topic no. N162-107) for financial support and the project manager J. Manney. Fundamental catalyst development efforts were supported by the US Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Chemical Sciences, Geosciences and Biosciences Division, Catalysis Science Programme through the SUNCAT Centre for Interface Science and Catalysis. Physical characterization of the catalyst in this work was performed at the Stanford Nano Shared Facilities, supported by the National Science Foundation (award no. ECCS-1542152). We thank R. Chin for his assistance with SEM at this facility. M.A.H. acknowledges the support of a National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship.
The authors declare no competing interests.
Peer review information Nature Nanotechnology thanks Foteini Sapountzi and the other, anonymous, reviewer(s) for their contribution to the peer review of this work.
Publisher’s note Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
About this article
Cite this article
King, L.A., Hubert, M.A., Capuano, C. et al. A non-precious metal hydrogen catalyst in a commercial polymer electrolyte membrane electrolyser. Nat. Nanotechnol. 14, 1071–1074 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41565-019-0550-7
Nature Nanotechnology (2021)
Promoted electrocatalytic hydrogen evolution performance by constructing Ni12P5–Ni2P heterointerfaces
International Journal of Hydrogen Energy (2021)
Advanced Energy Materials (2021)
Elucidation of Fluid Streamlining in Multi-Layered Porous Transport Layers for Polymer Electrolyte Water Electrolyzers by Operando Neutron Radiography
Journal of The Electrochemical Society (2021)
Chemical Engineering Journal (2021)