Skip to main content

Thank you for visiting You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser (or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer). In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript.

  • Correspondence
  • Published:

On the issue of transparency and reproducibility in nanomedicine

A Publisher Correction to this article was published on 29 July 2019

A Publisher Correction to this article was published on 09 July 2019

This article has been updated

Following our call to join in the discussion over the suitability of implementing a reporting checklist for bio–nano papers, the community responds.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution

Relevant articles

Open Access articles citing this article.

Access options

Buy this article

Prices may be subject to local taxes which are calculated during checkout

Change history

  • 29 July 2019

    An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

  • 09 July 2019

    An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper


  1. Wilhelm, S. et al. Nat. Rev. Mater. 1, 16014 (2016).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  2. Leong, H. S. et al. Nat. Protoc. 5, 1406–1417 (2010).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  3. Townson, J. L. et al. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 135, 16030–16033 (2013).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  4. Dogra, P. et al. Nat. Commun. 9, 4551 (2018).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Cho, C.-F., Ablack, A., Leong, H.-S., Zijlstra, A. & Lewis, J. J. Vis. Exp. (2011).

  6. Durfee, P. N. et al. ACS Nano 10, 8325–8345 (2016).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  7. FDA’s Approach to Regulation of Nanotechnology Products (FDA, 2018);

  8. Swierczewska, M., Crist, R. M. & McNeil, S. E. Methods Mol. Biol. 1682, 3–16 (2018).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  9. Crist, R. M. et al. Integr. Biol. 5, 66–73 (2013).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  10. Gioria, S. et al. Nanomedicine (2018).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  11. Caputo, F. et al. J. Control. Release 299, 31–43 (2019).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  12. Prina-Mello, A. in Handbook of Nanomaterials for Cancer Theranostics (ed. Conde, J.) Ch. 17 (Elsevier, 2018).

  13. Adiseshaiah, P. P. & Stern, S. T. Methods Mol. Biol. 1682, 241–253 (2018).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  14. Nat. Nanotechnol. 13, 765 (2018).

  15. Faria, M. et al. Nat. Nanotechnol. 13, 777–785 (2018).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  16. Bouwmeester, H. et al. Nanotoxicology 5, 1–11 (2011).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  17. Nat. Nanotechnol. 7, 545 (2012).

  18. Pettitt, M. E. & Lead, J. R. Environ. Int. 52, 41–50 (2013).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Nat. Nanotechnol. 8, 69 (2013).

  20. Schrurs, F. & Lison, D. Nat. Nanotechnol. 7, 546–548 (2012).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  21. Nel, A. E. et al. ACS Nano 9, 5627–5630 (2015).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  22. Zhang, H. et al. ACS Nano 6, 4349–4368 (2012).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  23. Li, R. et al. ACS Nano 8, 1771–1783 (2014).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  24. Li, R. et al. ACS Nano 12, 1390–1402 (2018).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  25. Liu, X. et al. J. Clin. Invest. 127, 2007–2018 (2017).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. “Definitions in Biomaterials” Conference Attracts World Experts to Chengdu, China (Society for Biomaterials, 7 January 2018);

  27. Clotilde, T. et al. J. Extracell. Vesicles 7, 1535750 (2018).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. EV-TRACK Consortium. Nat. Methods 14, 228–232 (2017).

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references


Kimberly S. Butler, Hon S. Leong and C. Jeffrey Brinker: Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-mission laboratory managed and operated by National Technology and Engineering Solutions of Sandia, LLC, a wholly owned subsidiary of Honeywell International, Inc., for the US Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DENA0003525. Any subjective views or opinions that might be expressed in the paper do not necessarily represent the views of the US Department of Energy or the US government.

Adriele Prina-Mello, Ruth Schmid, Peter Wick, Fanny Caputo, Patrick Boisseau, Rachael M. Crist and Scott E. McNeil: the view expressed in this Correspondence is reflective of the European Nanomedicine Characterisation Laboratory (EUNCL EC-H2020 ref. 654190) and the REFINE consortium (REFINE EC-H2020 ref. 761104). The work of authors Rachael M. Crist and Scott E. McNeil has been funded in whole or in part with Federal funds from the National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, under contract no. HHSN261200800001E. The content of this publication does not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the Department of Health and Human Services, nor does mention of trade names, commercial products or organizations imply endorsement by the US government.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Chiara Pastore.

Supplementary Information

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Leong, H.S., Butler, K.S., Brinker, C.J. et al. On the issue of transparency and reproducibility in nanomedicine. Nat. Nanotechnol. 14, 629–635 (2019).

Download citation

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI:

This article is cited by


Quick links

Nature Briefing

Sign up for the Nature Briefing newsletter — what matters in science, free to your inbox daily.

Get the most important science stories of the day, free in your inbox. Sign up for Nature Briefing