New tools for intracellular electrophysiology that push the limits of spatiotemporal resolution while reducing invasiveness could provide a deeper understanding of electrogenic cells and their networks in tissues, and push progress towards human–machine interfaces. Although significant advances have been made in developing nanodevices for intracellular probes, current approaches exhibit a trade-off between device scalability and recording amplitude. We address this challenge by combining deterministic shape-controlled nanowire transfer with spatially defined semiconductor-to-metal transformation to realize scalable nanowire field-effect transistor probe arrays with controllable tip geometry and sensor size, which enable recording of up to 100 mV intracellular action potentials from primary neurons. Systematic studies on neurons and cardiomyocytes show that controlling device curvature and sensor size is critical for achieving high-amplitude intracellular recordings. In addition, this device design allows for multiplexed recording from single cells and cell networks and could enable future investigations of dynamics in the brain and other tissues.
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The data that support the findings of this study are available from the corresponding author upon reasonable request.
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C.M.L. acknowledges support from the Air Force Office of Scientific Research (FA9550-14-1-0136). S.S.Y. acknowledges an NSF Graduate Research Fellowship. This work was performed in part at the Center for Nanoscale Systems (CNS) of Harvard University.
The authors declare no competing interests.
Journal peer review information: Nature Nanotechnology thanks Bozhi Tian, Bruce Wheeler and other anonymous reviewer(s) for their contribution to the peer review of this work.
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Zhao, Y., You, S.S., Zhang, A. et al. Scalable ultrasmall three-dimensional nanowire transistor probes for intracellular recording. Nat. Nanotechnol. 14, 783–790 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41565-019-0478-y
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