Skip to main content

Thank you for visiting nature.com. You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser (or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer). In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript.

You are viewing this page in draft mode.

Small footprint transistor architecture for photoswitching logic and in situ memory

Abstract

The need for continuous size downscaling of silicon transistors is driving the industrial development of strategies to enable further footprint reduction1,2. The atomic thickness of two-dimensional materials allows the potential realization of high-area-efficiency transistor architectures. However, until now, the design of devices composed of two-dimensional materials has mimicked the basic architecture of silicon circuits3,4,5,6. Here, we report a transistor based on a two-dimensional material that can realize photoswitching logic (OR, AND) computing in a single cell. Unlike the conventional transistor working mechanism, the two-dimensional material logic transistor has two surface channels. Furthermore, the material thickness can change the logic behaviour—the architecture can be flexibly expanded to achieve in situ memory such as logic computing and data storage convergence in the same device. These devices are potentially promising candidates for the construction of new chips that can perform computing and storage with high area-efficiency and unique functions.

This is a preview of subscription content

Access options

Rent or Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.

from$8.99

All prices are NET prices.

Fig. 1: Logic gates based on 2D transistors.
Fig. 2: The OR logic gate via a single transitor and the unique two-surface-channel device mechanism.
Fig. 3: Demonstration of a single 2D transistor (monolayer) for photoswitching logic and the channel material thickness dependence.
Fig. 4: Logic behaviour of the 2D floating-gate transistor with and without charges in the floating gate.
Fig. 5: Demonstration of in situ memory in a single 2D floating-gate transistor.

Data availability

The data that support the plots in this paper and other findings of this study are available from the corresponding authors on reasonable request.

References

  1. 1.

    Seabaugh, A. C. & Zhang, Q. Low-voltage tunnel transistors for beyond CMOS logic. Proc. IEEE 98, 2095–2110 (2010).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Ionescu, A. M. & Riel, H. Tunnel field-effect transistors as energy-efficient electronic switches. Nature 479, 329–337 (2011).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Radisavljevic, B., Radenovic, A., Brivio, J., Giacometti, V. & Kis, A. Single-layer MoS2 transistors. Nat. Nanotechnol. 6, 147–150 (2011).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Fang, H. et al. High-performance single layered WSe2 p-FETs with chemically doped contacts. Nano Lett. 12, 3788–3792 (2012).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Desai, S. B. et al. MoS2 transistors with 1-nanometer gate lengths. Science 354, 99–102 (2016).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Si, M. et al. Steep-slope hysteresis-free negative capacitance MoS2 transistors. Nat. Nanotechnol. 13, 24–28 (2018).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Li, L. et al. Black phosphorus field-effect transistors. Nat. Nanotechnol. 9, 372–377 (2014).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Liu, C. et al. A semi-floating gate memory based on van der Waals heterostructures for quasi-non-volatile applications. Nat. Nanotechnol. 13, 404–410 (2018).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Liu, C. et al. Eliminating overerase behavior by designing energy band in high-speed charge-trap memory based on WSe2. Small 13, 1604128 (2017).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Vu, Q. A. et al. Two-terminal floating-gate memory with van der Waals heterostructures for ultrahigh on/off ratio. Nat. Commun. 7, 12725 (2016).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Huang, M. et al. Multifunctional high-performance van der Waals heterostructures. Nat. Nanotechnol. 12, 1148–1154 (2017).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Shim, J. et al. Phosphorene/rhenium disulfide heterojunction-based negative differential resistance device for multi-valued logic. Nat. Commun. 7, 13413 (2016).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Wachter, S., Polyushkin, D. K., Bethge, O. & Mueller, T. A microprocessor based on a two-dimensional semiconductor. Nat. Commun. 8, 14948 (2017).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Britnell, L. et al. Electron tunneling through ultrathin boron nitride crystalline barriers. Nano Lett. 12, 1707–1710 (2012).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Mak, K. F., Lee, C., Hone, J., Shan, J. & Heinz, T. F. Atomically thin MoS2: a new direct-gap semiconductor. Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 474–479 (2010).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Zhao, W. et al. Evolution of electronic structure in atomically thin sheets of WS2 and WSe2. ACS Nano 7, 791–797 (2012).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Yu, L. et al. Design, modeling and fabrication of CVD grown MoS2 circuits with E-Mode FETs for large-area electronics. Nano Lett. 16, 6349–6356 (2016).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Lopezsanchez, O., Lembke, D., Kayci, M., Radenovic, A. & Kis, A. Ultrasensitive photodetectors based on monolayer MoS2. Nat. Nanotechnol. 8, 497–501 (2013).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Ohta, T. et al. Interlayer interaction and electronic screening in multilayer graphene investigated with angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 206802 (2007).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Borghetti, J. et al. ‘Memristive’ switches enable ‘stateful’ logic operations via material implication. Nature 464, 873–876 (2010).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    Shulaker, M. M. et al. Three-dimensional integration of nanotechnologies for computing and data storage on a single chip. Nature 547, 74–78 (2017).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by the National Key Research and Development Program (2017YFB0405600), National Natural Science Foundation of China (61622401, 61851402 and 61734003), Shanghai Education Development Foundation and Shanghai Municipal Education Commission Shuguang Program (18SG01). P.Z. acknowledges support from Shanghai Municipal Science and Technology Commission (18JC1410300). P.Z. thanks D. Sandubashao’s group for encouragement and help, and H. Zhou from Giantec Semiconductor for assistance during device fabrication and for discussions.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Contributions

P.Z. conceived the idea and supervised the experiments. C.L. performed the device fabrication and carried out the electrical characteristics measurements. H.C., X.H., H.Z., J.H., Y.-G.J. and X.Z. provided valuable input to the overall experiments. D.W.Z. provided input regarding the experiment conditions. C.L. and P.Z. wrote the paper, with help from all authors.

Corresponding authors

Correspondence to David Wei Zhang or Peng Zhou.

Ethics declarations

Competing interests

The authors declare no competing interests.

Additional information

Journal peer review information: Nature Nanotechnology thanks Wei Chen and other anonymous reviewer(s) for their contribution to the peer review of this work.

Publisher’s note: Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Supplementary information

Supplementary Information

Supplementary Sections 1–8, Supplementary Figs. 1–8, Supplementary references 1–7

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Liu, C., Chen, H., Hou, X. et al. Small footprint transistor architecture for photoswitching logic and in situ memory. Nat. Nanotechnol. 14, 662–667 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41565-019-0462-6

Download citation

Further reading

Search

Quick links

Find nanotechnology articles, nanomaterial data and patents all in one place. Visit Nano by Nature Research