Current agricultural practices, developed during the green revolution, are becoming unsustainable, especially in the face of climate change and growing populations. Nanotechnology will be an important driver for the impending agri-tech revolution that promises a more sustainable, efficient and resilient agricultural system, while promoting food security. Here, we present the most promising new opportunities and approaches for the application of nanotechnology to improve the use efficiency of necessary inputs (light, water, soil) for crop agriculture, and for better managing biotic and abiotic stress. Potential development and implementation barriers are discussed, emphasizing the need for a systems approach to designing proposed nanotechnologies.
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G.V.L. and A.A. thank the US National Science Foundation (NSF) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) under NSF Cooperative Agreement EF-1266252, the Center for the Environmental Implications of NanoTechnology (CEINT) and the NSF (CBET-1530563; Nano for Agriculturally Relevant Materials (NanoFARM)) for supporting this effort. L.M.G. acknowledges support from the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation.
The authors declare no competing interests.
Journal peer review information: Nature Nanotechnology thanks David Britt and Jason White for their contribution to the peer review of this work.
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