Spatially tailored pseudo-magnetic fields (PMFs) can give rise to pseudo-Landau levels and the valley Hall effect in graphene. At an experimental level, it is highly challenging to create the specific strain texture that can generate PMFs over large areas. Here, we report that superposing graphene on multilayer black phosphorus creates shear-strained superlattices that generate a PMF over an entire graphene–black phosphorus heterostructure with edge size of tens of micrometres. The PMF is intertwined with the spatial period of the moiré pattern, and its spatial distribution and intensity can be modified by changing the relative orientation of the two materials. We show that the emerging pseudo-Landau levels influence the transport properties of graphene–black phosphorus field-effect transistor devices with Hall bar geometry. The application of an external magnetic field allows us to enhance or reduce the effective field depending on the valley polarization with the prospect of developing a valley filter.
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The authors thank L. Xin and Q. Su Ying for valuable suggestions. K.P.L. and S.A. acknowledge support from the Singapore Ministry of Education AcRF Tier 2 (MOE2017-T2-2-140).
The authors declare no competing interests.
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Liu, Y., Rodrigues, J.N.B., Luo, Y.Z. et al. Tailoring sample-wide pseudo-magnetic fields on a graphene–black phosphorus heterostructure. Nature Nanotech 13, 828–834 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41565-018-0178-z
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