Van der Waals heterostructures have emerged as promising building blocks that offer access to new physics, novel device functionalities and superior electrical and optoelectronic properties1,2,3,4,5,6,7. Applications such as thermal management, photodetection, light emission, data communication, high-speed electronics and light harvesting8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16 require a thorough understanding of (nanoscale) heat flow. Here, using time-resolved photocurrent measurements, we identify an efficient out-of-plane energy transfer channel, where charge carriers in graphene couple to hyperbolic phonon polaritons17,18,19 in the encapsulating layered material. This hyperbolic cooling is particularly efficient, giving picosecond cooling times for hexagonal BN, where the high-momentum hyperbolic phonon polaritons enable efficient near-field energy transfer. We study this heat transfer mechanism using distinct control knobs to vary carrier density and lattice temperature, and find excellent agreement with theory without any adjustable parameters. These insights may lead to the ability to control heat flow in van der Waals heterostructures.

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The authors thank A. Tomadin and F. Vialla for discussions. This work was supported by the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement no. 696656, Graphene Flagship, Fondazione Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness through the Severo Ochoa Programme for Centres of Excellence in R&D (SEV-2015-0522), Fundacio Cellex Barcelona, Mineco grants Ramon y Cajal (RYC-2012-12281), Plan Nacional (FIS2013-47161-P) and the Government of Catalonia through an SGR grant (2014-SGR-1535), ERC StG CarbonLight (307806), ERC grant Hetero2D, and EPSRC grants EP/K01711X/1, EP/K017144/1, EP/N010345/1 and EP/L016087/1. K.-J.T. acknowledges support from a Mineco Young Investigator Grant (FIS2014-59639-JIN). A.P. acknowledges support from ERC Advanced Grant 338957 FEMTO/NANO and from the NWO via the Spinoza Prize. M.M. acknowledges support from the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (PGSD3-426325-2012). D.T. acknowledges financial support from the European Union Marie Curie Program (Career Integration grant no. 334324 LIGHTER) and the Max Planck Society. K.W. and T.T. acknowledge support from the Elemental Strategy Initiative conducted by the MEXT, Japan and JSPS KAKENHI (grant nos. JP26248061, JP15K21722 and JP25106006).

Author information

Author notes

  1. Klaas-Jan Tielrooij and Niels Hesp are equally contributing authors.


  1. ICFO – Institut de Ciències Fotòniques, The Barcelona Institute of Science and Technology, Castelldefels (Barcelona), Spain

    • Klaas-Jan Tielrooij
    • , Niels C. H. Hesp
    • , Mark B. Lundeberg
    • , Mathieu Massicotte
    • , Peter Schmidt
    • , Diana Davydovskaya
    •  & Frank H. L. Koppens
  2. Radboud University, Institute for Molecules and Materials, Nijmegen, The Netherlands

    • Alessandro Principi
  3. School of Physics & Astronomy, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK

    • Alessandro Principi
  4. IFN-CNR, Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Milano, Milano, Italy

    • Eva A. A. Pogna
    •  & Giulio Cerullo
  5. JARA-FIT and 2nd Institute of Physics, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany

    • Luca Banszerus
    •  & Christoph Stampfer
  6. Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research, Mainz, Germany

    • Zoltán Mics
    • , Mischa Bonn
    •  & Dmitry Turchinovich
  7. Cambridge Graphene Centre, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK

    • David G. Purdie
    • , Ilya Goykhman
    • , Giancarlo Soavi
    •  & Andrea C. Ferrari
  8. National Institute for Material Science, Tsukuba, Japan

    • Antonio Lombardo
    • , Kenji Watanabe
    •  & Takashi Taniguchi
  9. Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Graphene Labs, Genova, Italy

    • Marco Polini
  10. ICREA – Institució Catalana de Reçerca i Estudis Avancats, Barcelona, Spain

    • Frank H. L. Koppens
  11. Fakultät für Physik, Universität Duisburg-Essen, Duisburg, Germany

    • Dmitry Turchinovich


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K.-J.T. and F.H.L.K. conceived the experiment. K.-J.T. and N.C.H.H. performed the time-resolved photocurrent experiments and performed data analysis. A.P., M.P. and M.B.L. developed the theory and performed calculations on hyperbolic cooling. E.A.A.P. performed the optical pump–probe spectroscopy measurements. Z.M. and K.-J.T. performed the optical pump–THz probe spectroscopy measurements. N.C.H.H., M.B.L., L.B., M.M., P.S., D.D., D.G.P., I.G., G.S. and A.L. fabricated devices. K.W. and T.T. contributed hBN material. M.B., D.T., C.S., A.C.F., G.C., M.P. and F.H.L.K. supervised the work and discussed the results. K.-J.T., F.H.L.K. and M.P. wrote the paper, with input from all authors.

Competing interests

The authors declare no competing financial interests.

Corresponding authors

Correspondence to Klaas-Jan Tielrooij or Frank H. L. Koppens.

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