Virophages are small double stranded DNA (dsDNA) viruses that can only replicate in a host by co-infecting with another virus. Marine algae are commonly associated with virophage-like elements such as Polinton-like viruses (PLVs) that remain largely uncharacterized. Here we isolated a PLV that co-infects the alga Phaeocystis globosa with the Phaeocystis globosa virus-14T (PgV-14T), a close relative of the "Phaeocystis globosa virus-virophage" genomic sequence. We name this PLV ‘Gezel-14T. Gezel is phylogenetically distinct from the Lavidaviridae family where all known virophages belong. Gezel-14T co-infection decreases the fitness of its viral host by reducing burst sizes of PgV-14T, yet insufficiently to spare the cellular host population. Genomic screens show Gezel-14T-like PLVs integrated into Phaeocystis genomes, suggesting that these widespread viruses are capable of integration into cellular host genomes. This system presents an opportunity to better understand the evolution of eukaryotic dsDNA viruses as well as the complex dynamics and implications of viral parasitism.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution
Access Nature and 54 other Nature Portfolio journals
Get Nature+, our best-value online-access subscription
$29.99 / 30 days
cancel any time
Subscribe to this journal
Receive 12 digital issues and online access to articles
$119.00 per year
only $9.92 per issue
Rent or buy this article
Prices vary by article type
Prices may be subject to local taxes which are calculated during checkout
The sequencing data are available from NCBI SRA SRR20333090 (Bioproject PRJNA835735). PgV-14T and Gezel-14T genome assemblies were deposited in NCBI Genbank under accession numbers OP080611 and OP080612. Annotated fragments of complete PLVs and NDDV from P. globosa and other algae are provided as Supplementary File 6 . Source data are provided with this paper. The mass spectrometry proteomics data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange Consortium via the PRIDE partner repository with the dataset identifier PXD036892. Additional material is supplied in the Figshare repository at https://doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.21294852. Source data are provided with this paper.
Code used for bioinformatic analyses is available at https://github.com/BejaLab/Gezelvirus and https://github.com/BejaLab/phaeocystis-viral-elements.
Koonin, E. V. & Dolja, V. V. Virus world as an evolutionary network of viruses and capsidless selfish elements. Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev. 78, 278–303 (2014).
Pritham, E. J., Putliwala, T. & Feschotte, C. Mavericks, a novel class of giant transposable elements widespread in eukaryotes and related to DNA viruses. Gene 390, 3–17 (2007).
Kapitonov, V. V. & Jurka, J. Self-synthesizing DNA transposons in eukaryotes. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 103, 4540–4545 (2006).
Krupovic, M. & Koonin, E. V. Polintons: a hotbed of eukaryotic virus, transposon and plasmid evolution. Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 13, 105–115 (2015).
Koonin, E. V., Krupovic, M. & Yutin, N. Evolution of double-stranded DNA viruses of eukaryotes: from bacteriophages to transposons to giant viruses. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 1341, 10–24 (2015).
Yutin, N., Raoult, D. & Koonin, E. V. Virophages, polintons, and transpovirons: a complex evolutionary network of diverse selfish genetic elements with different reproduction strategies. Virol. J. 10, 158 (2013).
Krupovic, M., Bamford, D. H. & Koonin, E. V. Conservation of major and minor jelly-roll capsid proteins in Polinton (Maverick) transposons suggests that they are bona fide viruses. Biol. Direct 9, 6 (2014).
Yutin, N., Shevchenko, S., Kapitonov, V., Krupovic, M. & Koonin, E. V. A novel group of diverse Polinton-like viruses discovered by metagenome analysis. BMC Biol. 13, 95 (2015).
Bellas, C. M. & Sommaruga, R. Polinton-like viruses are abundant in aquatic ecosystems. Microbiome 9, 13 (2021).
Pagarete, A., Grébert, T., Stepanova, O., Sandaa, R.-A. & Bratbak, G. Tsv-N1: a novel DNA algal virus that infects Tetraselmis striata. Viruses 7, 3937–3953 (2015).
Bekliz, M., Colson, P. & La Scola, B. The expanding family of virophages. Viruses 8, 317 (2016).
Fischer, M. G. The virophage family Lavidaviridae. Curr. Issues Mol. Biol. https://doi.org/10.21775/cimb.040.001 (2021).
Desnues, C. et al. Provirophages and transpovirons as the diverse mobilome of giant viruses. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 109, 18078–18083 (2012).
Campos, R. K. et al. Samba virus: a novel mimivirus from a giant rain forest, the Brazilian Amazon. Virol. J. 11, 95 (2014).
Gaia, M. et al. Broad spectrum of mimiviridae virophage allows its isolation using a mimivirus reporter. PLoS ONE 8, e61912 (2013).
Hackl, T., Duponchel, S., Barenhoff, K., Weinmann, A. & Fischer, M. G. Virophages and retrotransposons colonize the genomes of a heterotrophic flagellate. eLife 10, e72674 (2021).
Yau, S. et al. Virophage control of Antarctic algal host-virus dynamics. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 108, 6163–6168 (2011).
Gong, C. et al. Novel virophages discovered in a freshwater lake in China. Front. Microbiol. 7, 5 (2016).
Zhou, J. et al. Three novel virophage genomes discovered from Yellowstone Lake metagenomes. J. Virol. 89, 1278–1285 (2014).
Yutin, N., Kapitonov, V. V. & Koonin, E. V. A new family of hybrid virophages from an animal gut metagenome. Biol. Direct 10, 19 (2015).
Stough, J. M. A. et al. Genome and environmental activity of a Chrysochromulina parva virus and its virophages. Front. Microbiol. 10, 703 (2019).
La Scola, B. et al. The virophage as a unique parasite of the giant mimivirus. Nature 455, 100–104 (2008).
Fischer, M. G. & Suttle, C. A. A virophage at the origin of large DNA transposons. Science 332, 231–234 (2011).
Gaia, M. et al. Zamilon, a novel virophage with Mimiviridae host specificity. PLoS ONE 9, e94923 (2014).
Mougari, S. et al. Guarani virophage, a new Sputnik-like isolate from a Brazilian lake. Front. Microbiol. 10, 1003 (2019).
Sheng, Y., Wu, Z., Xu, S. & Wang, Y. Isolation and identification of a large green alga virus (Chlorella Virus XW01) of Mimiviridae and its virophage (Chlorella Virus Virophage SW01) by using unicellular green algal cultures. J. Virol. 96, e02114–e02121 (2022).
Baudoux, A. C. & Brussaard, C. P. D. Characterization of different viruses infecting the marine harmful algal bloom species Phaeocystis globosa. Virology 341, 80–90 (2005).
Santini, S. et al. Genome of Phaeocystis globosa virus PgV-16T highlights the common ancestry of the largest known DNA viruses infecting eukaryotes. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 110, 10800–10805 (2013).
Tarutani, K., Nagasaki, K. & Yamaguchi, M. Virus adsorption process determines virus susceptibility in Heterosigma akashiwo (Raphidophyceae). Aquat. Microb. Ecol. 42, 209–213 (2006).
Gann, E. R., Gainer, P. J., Reynolds, T. B. & Wilhelm, S. W. Influence of light on the infection of Aureococcus anophagefferens CCMP 1984 by a ‘giant virus’. PLoS ONE 15, e0226758 (2020).
Van Etten, J. L., Burbank, D. E., Xia, Y. & Meints, R. H. Growth cycle of a virus, PBCV-1, that infects Chlorella-like algae. Virology 126, 117–125 (1983).
Boyer, M. et al. Mimivirus shows dramatic genome reduction after intraamoebal culture. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 108, 10296–10301 (2011).
Desnues, C. & Raoult, D. Inside the lifestyle of the virophage. Intervirology 53, 293–303 (2010).
Sobhy, H., Scola, B. L., Pagnier, I., Raoult, D. & Colson, P. Identification of giant Mimivirus protein functions using RNA interference. Front. Microbiol. 6, 345 (2015).
Fischer, M. G. & Hackl, T. Host genome integration and giant virus-induced reactivation of the virophage mavirus. Nature 540, 288–291 (2016).
Wodarz, D. Evolutionary dynamics of giant viruses and their virophages. Ecol. Evol. 3, 2103–2115 (2013).
Farr, G. A., Zhang, L. & Tattersall, P. Parvoviral virions deploy a capsid-tethered lipolytic enzyme to breach the endosomal membrane during cell entry. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 102, 17148–17153 (2005).
Suhre, K., Audic, S. & Claverie, J.-M. Mimivirus gene promoters exhibit an unprecedented conservation among all eukaryotes. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 102, 14689–14693 (2005).
Legendre, M. et al. mRNA deep sequencing reveals 75 new genes and a complex transcriptional landscape in Mimivirus. Genome Res. 20, 664–674 (2010).
Smith, D. R., Arrigo, K. R., Alderkamp, A.-C. & Allen, A. E. Massive difference in synonymous substitution rates among mitochondrial, plastid, and nuclear genes of Phaeocystis algae. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 71, 36–40 (2014).
Krupovic, M., Kuhn, J. H. & Fischer, M. G. A classification system for virophages and satellite viruses. Arch. Virol. 161, 233–247 (2016).
Suplatov, D. A., Besenmatter, W., Svedas, V. K. & Svendsen, A. Bioinformatic analysis of alpha/beta-hydrolase fold enzymes reveals subfamily-specific positions responsible for discrimination of amidase and lipase activities. Protein Eng. Des. Sel. 25, 689–697 (2012).
Burt, A. & Koufopanou, V. Homing endonuclease genes: the rise and fall and rise again of a selfish element. Curr. Opin. Genet. Dev. 14, 609–615 (2004).
Sullivan, M. B. DNA extraction of cesium chloride-purified viruses using wizard prep columns. Protocols https://doi.org/10.17504/protocols.io.c26yhd (2016).
González-Domínguez, J. & Schmidt, B. ParDRe: faster parallel duplicated reads removal tool for sequencing studies. Bioinformatics 32, 1562–1564 (2016).
Guillard, R. R. L. Culture of phytoplankton for feeding marine invertebrates. In Culture of Marine Invertebrate Animals: Proceedings—1st Conference on Culture of Marine Invertebrate Animals Greenport (eds Smith, W. L., & Chanley, M. H.) 29– 60 (Springer, 1975).
Cottrell, M. & Suttle, C. Wide-spread occurrence and clonal variation in viruses which cause lysis of a cosmopolitan, eukaryotic marine phytoplankter Micromonas pusilla. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 78, 1–9 (1991).
Krueger, F., James, F., Ewels, P., Afyounian, E. & Schuster-Boeckler, B. FelixKrueger/TrimGalore: v0.6.7 - DOI via Zenodo. https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.5127899 (2021).
Bankevich, A. et al. SPAdes: a new genome assembly algorithm and its applications to single-cell sequencing. J. Comput. Biol. 19, 455–477 (2012).
Schneider, C. A., Rasband, W. S. & Eliceiri, K. W. NIH Image to ImageJ: 25 years of image analysis. Nat. Methods 9, 671–675 (2012).
Patel, A. et al. Virus and prokaryote enumeration from planktonic aquatic environments by epifluorescence microscopy with SYBR Green I. Nat. Protoc. 2, 269–276 (2007).
Bolte, S. & Cordelières, F. P. A guided tour into subcellular colocalization analysis in light microscopy. J. Microsc. 224, 213–232 (2006).
Brussaard, C. P. D. Optimization of procedures for counting viruses by flow cytometry. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 70, 1506–1513 (2004).
Kirzner, S., Barak, E. & Lindell, D. Variability in progeny production and virulence of cyanophages determined at the single-cell level. Environ. Microbiol. Rep. 8, 605–613 (2016).
Ziv, I. et al. A perturbed ubiquitin landscape distinguishes between ubiquitin in trafficking and in proteolysis. Mol. Cell. Proteomics 10, M111.009753 (2011).
HaileMariam, M. et al. S-Trap, an ultrafast sample-preparation approach for shotgun proteomics. J. Proteome Res. 17, 2917–2924 (2018).
Rappsilber, J., Mann, M. & Ishihama, Y. Protocol for micro-purification, enrichment, pre-fractionation and storage of peptides for proteomics using StageTips. Nat. Protoc. 2, 1896–1906 (2007).
Kong, A. T., Leprevost, F. V., Avtonomov, D. M., Mellacheruvu, D. & Nesvizhskii, A. I. MSFragger: ultrafast and comprehensive peptide identification in mass spectrometry-based proteomics. Nat. Methods 14, 513–520 (2017).
Li, W. & Godzik, A. Cd-hit: a fast program for clustering and comparing large sets of protein or nucleotide sequences. Bioinformatics 22, 1658–1659 (2006).
Lechner, M. et al. Proteinortho: detection of (Co-)orthologs in large-scale analysis. BMC Bioinformatics 12, 124 (2011).
Buchfink, B., Reuter, K. & Drost, H.-G. Sensitive protein alignments at tree-of-life scale using DIAMOND. Nat. Methods 18, 366–368 (2021).
Cox, J. et al. Accurate proteome-wide label-free quantification by delayed normalization and maximal peptide ratio extraction termed MaxLFQ. Mol. Cell. Proteomics 13, 2513–2526 (2014).
Mirdita, M. et al. ColabFold: making protein folding accessible to all. Nat. Methods 19, 679–682 (2022).
Jumper, J. et al. Highly accurate protein structure prediction with AlphaFold. Nature 596, 583–589 (2021).
O’Connell, J. et al. NxTrim: optimized trimming of Illumina mate pair reads. Bioinformatics 31, 2035–2037 (2015).
Li, D., Liu, C.-M., Luo, R., Sadakane, K. & Lam, T.-W. MEGAHIT: an ultra-fast single-node solution for large and complex metagenomics assembly via succinct de Bruijn graph. Bioinformatics 31, 1674–1676 (2015).
Luo, R. et al. SOAPdenovo2: an empirically improved memory-efficient short-read de novo assembler. GigaScience 1, 2047-217X-1–18 (2012).
Chevreux, B., Wetter, T. & Suhai, S. Genome sequence assembly using trace signals and additional sequence information. In Proc. German Conference on Bioinformatics 45–56 (Fachgruppe Bioinformatik, 1999).
Deng, Z. & Delwart, E. ContigExtender: a new approach to improving de novo sequence assembly for viral metagenomics data. BMC Bioinformatics 22, 119 (2021).
Walker, B. J. et al. Pilon: an integrated tool for comprehensive microbial variant detection and genome assembly improvement. PLoS ONE 9, e112963 (2014).
Eddy, S. R. Accelerated profile HMM searches. PLoS Comput. Biol. 7, e1002195 (2011).
Katoh, K., Misawa, K., Kuma, K. & Miyata, T. MAFFT: a novel method for rapid multiple sequence alignment based on fast Fourier transform. Nucleic Acids Res. 30, 3059–3066 (2002).
Minh, B. Q. et al. IQ-TREE 2: new models and efficient methods for phylogenetic inference in the genomic era. Mol. Biol. Evol. 37, 1530–1534 (2020).
Hoang, D. T., Chernomor, O., von Haeseler, A., Minh, B. Q. & Vinh, L. S. UFBoot2: improving the ultrafast bootstrap approximation. Mol. Biol. Evol. 35, 518–522 (2018).
Kozlov, A. M., Darriba, D., Flouri, T., Morel, B. & Stamatakis, A. RAxML-NG: a fast, scalable and user-friendly tool for maximum likelihood phylogenetic inference. Bioinformatics 35, 4453–4455 (2019).
Barbera, P. et al. EPA-ng: massively parallel evolutionary placement of genetic sequences. Syst. Biol. 68, 365–369 (2019).
Capella-Gutiérrez, S., Silla-Martínez, J. M. & Gabaldón, T. trimAl: a tool for automated alignment trimming in large-scale phylogenetic analyses. Bioinformatics 25, 1972–1973 (2009).
Steinegger, M. & Söding, J. MMseqs2 enables sensitive protein sequence searching for the analysis of massive data sets. Nat. Biotechnol. 35, 1026–1028 (2017).
Steinegger, M. et al. HH-suite3 for fast remote homology detection and deep protein annotation. BMC Bioinformatics 20, 473 (2019).
Enright, A. J., Van Dongen, S. & Ouzounis, C. A. An efficient algorithm for large-scale detection of protein families. Nucleic Acids Res. 30, 1575–1584 (2002).
Bolduc, B. et al. vConTACT: an iVirus tool to classify double-stranded DNA viruses that infect Archaea and Bacteria. PeerJ 5, e3243 (2017).
Zimmermann, L. et al. A completely reimplemented MPI bioinformatics toolkit with a new HHpred server at its core. J. Mol. Biol. 430, 2237–2243 (2018).
Heger, A. & Holm, L. Rapid automatic detection and alignment of repeats in protein sequences. Proteins 41, 224–237 (2000).
Chase, E., Desnues, C. & Blanc, G. Integrated viral elements unveil the dual lifestyle of Tetraselmis spp. polinton-like viruses. Virus Evol. 8, veac068 (2022).
Egge, E. S., Eikrem, W. & Edvardsen, B. Deep-branching novel lineages and high diversity of haptophytes in the Skagerrak (Norway) uncovered by 454 pyrosequencing. J. Eukaryot. Microbiol. 62, 121–140 (2015).
Hovde, B. T. et al. Chrysochromulina: genomic assessment and taxonomic diagnosis of the type species for an oleaginous algal clade. Algal Res. 37, 307–319 (2019).
Andersen, R. A., Bailey, J. C., Decelle, J. & Probert, I. Phaeocystis rex sp. nov. (Phaeocystales, Prymnesiophyceae): a new solitary species that produces a multilayered scale cell covering. Eur. J. Phycol. 50, 207–222 (2015).
Stepanova, O. A. Black Sea algal viruses. Russ. J. Mar. Biol. 42, 123–127 (2016).
Alarcón-Schumacher, T., Guajardo-Leiva, S., Antón, J. & Díez, B. Elucidating viral communities during a phytoplankton bloom on the West Antarctic Peninsula. Front. Microbiol. 10, 1014 (2019).
We thank A. Noordeloos for providing advice on how to culture P. globosa and PgV-14T, L. Shaulov for expert technical assistance with TEM sample preparations and imaging, I. Pekarsky and N. Dahan for help with light microscopy, I. Navon and the Smoler Proteomics Center for help with the mass spectrometry analyses, the ICTV Virophage study group for nomenclature discussions, and S. Larom for technical assistance. This work was funded by a European Commission ERC Advanced Grant (321647, to O.B.), Israel Science Foundation grants 143/18 (O.B.), 1623/17 and 2167/17 (T.L. and O.K.), and the Ariane de Rothschild Women Doctoral Program (S.R.). O.B. holds a Louis and Lyra Richmond Chair in Life Sciences.
The authors declare no conflicts of interest.
Peer review information
Nature Microbiology thanks Sebastien Santini and Christopher Bellas for their contribution to the peer review of this work.
Publisher’s note Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
Extended Data Fig. 1 Comparison of the sequences of the terminal inverted repeats (TIRs) in Gezel-16T (formerly PgVV) and Gezel-14T.
a. The sequences of the TIRs were subdivided into (near) identical units based on their appearance in the four flanking regions. Note that the ends of the Gezel-14T genome could not be fully assembled and are thus truncated. Positions of the dinucleotide variation in units of type A are indicated. A region with homology to the TIR sequences located in both genomes in the intergenic spacer between genes TVpol and pgvv05 is shown for comparison. b. Results of amplification of the Gezel-14T TIR regions using a forward primer in unit G and side-specific reverse primers (shown to the left). The two major PCR products correspond to two versions of the fragment differing by the number of DAE units.
Infection experiments on P. globosa cultures infected with a. a mixed PgV-14T/Gezel-14T lysate, b. a pure PgV-14T lysate, c. Gezel-14T only. Purple lines denote the uninfected control culture; full lines the cell survival measured by OD of chlorophyll A. Viral abundances were calculated by qPCR and are marked as dashed lines for PgV-14T and dotted lines for Gezel-14T. n = 3 biologically independent cultures and lysates. Data are presented as mean values +/− SD, exact values can be found in Supplementary File 1 ‘Gezel-14T only infection’.
PCR on cDNA for the six ORFs with no significant hits in the proteomics analyses. M, Molecular Marker; -, non-template control; +, positive control (Gezel-14T DNA); samples were collected 2,4 and 6 hs post-infection. Two experiments (biological replicates) were analysed for each gene, only one is shown here.
Extended Data Fig. 4 Secondary structure and domain composition of the protein coded by Gezel-16T ORF PGVV_00014.
First track: per-position PSIPRED secondary structure prediction with blue lines corresponding to beta sheets and red lines to alpha-helices (coils not shown), Y-axis reflects confidence values (0–9). Second track: position of the large deletion in Gezel-14T. Third track: amino acid repeats discovered with RADAR with each colour corresponding to a repeat type. Fourth track: locations of the hhsearch matches to Pfam profile PF03903 (Enterobacteria phage T4 tail-fiber protein gp36) when searched against the Pfam database distributed with HH-Suite. Fifth track: hhsearch matches to Uniprot records: VP1_MPRVN – protein VP1 of Micromonas pusilla reovirus (Q1I0V1); FIBL1_BPT5 – L-shaped tail-fiber protein pb1 of Escherichia phage T5 (P13390).
Proteins found by mass spectrometry in purified PgV-14T viral particles (P - rhomboids) and 4, 6 and 8 hs post-infection (circles). Relative quantification as described in the methods section. Dots mark samples where relevant peptides were found, but below the significance threshold. Right panel includes all detected uncharacterized proteins. Raw data can be found in Supplementary File 3.
Results of the MEME search for common motifs in sequences upstream of ORFs in mesomimiviruses. Only motifs fitting the pattern WWWWWTGW are shown, supplemented by the unusually high-frequency palindromic motif TCCGGA of Tetraselmis virus 1. For each motif, a consensus sequence, number of sites and E-value are provided (to the left). Per-position weblogos and frequency distribution of distances from the start codon are shown in the middle and to the right.
The clade including the MCPs of NCLDV-like dwarf viruses (NDDVs) is highlighted in green and MCPs appearing in mesomimiviral genes are highlighted in cyan. The tree is midpoint-rooted. Host groups are indicated when known. Numbers of sequences for collapsed clades are shown in parentheses.
a. Schematic representation of the P. globosa-PgV-Gezel system. b. Distribution of NCLDVs, PLVs and NDDVs among haptophytes. The cladogram is after references85,86,87. Strains available with genomic data suitable for analysis of integrated viruses are indicated (asterisks mark strains for which only transcriptomes are available). CeV – Chrysochromulina ericina virus, CpVs – Chrysochromulina parva viruses; EhVs – Emiliania huxleyi viruses, IgV – Isochrysis galbana virus88, ‘PaV’ – ‘Phycodnaviridae Antarctica virus’ (mesomimivirus hypothesized to infect P. antarctica89), PgVs – Phaeocystis globosa viruses, PpV – Phaeocystis pouchetii virus.
a. Bipartite network of gene cluster sharing between Gezel-group PLVs. Triangles represent individual PLV genomes. Genes were clustered based on profile-profile matches (see Materials and Methods) and each cluster is represented as a dot. Red labels are provided for clusters that could be associated with widespread and/or functional families (see Supplementary Table 1 for definitions of the widespread families). b. Clustering structure according to vcontact2. VC subclusters are indicated, partial genomes of integrated P. globosa PLVs are indicated with asterisks.
Extended Data Fig. 10 Incidence and mobility of genes coding for putative non-intronic homing endonucleases located between genes for capsid proteins.
From top to bottom: GIY-YIG endonuclease gene seg2 between mCP and MCP genes (ORFs pgvv10 and pgvv12) in Gezel and its absence in closely related viruses as evidenced by the three metagenomic contigs; HNH endonuclease gene in the PLV Montjoie2259 and its lack in members of the same subgroup as exemplified by PLV-YSL1; a similar case of segD, a gene for a GIY-YIG-family endonuclease located between genes coding for the hexon and penton proteins present in Enterobacteria phage T4 but absent from Enterobacteria phage T2. ORF numbers are provided, percentages show similarity at the DNA level.
Supplementary Text, Table 1, Figs. 1 and 2, and References.
Primers list, P. globosa-PgV-Gezel infection dynamics.
Genome comparison of PgV and Gezel -16T and -14T viral strains, virions measurements.
Proteomics data, PCRs for poly-cystronic transcripts.
Metagenomic and Metatranscriptomics assemblies analysed in this project, integrated and standalone viruses index and sequences, PCR for P. globosa PLVs.
Cluster affiliation and best hhsearch Pfam hits for protein sequences from mesomimiviruses, Lavidaviruses, PLVs and NCLDV-like dwarf viruses.
Annotated viruses and viral fragments found in algal genomes.
About this article
Cite this article
Roitman, S., Rozenberg, A., Lavy, T. et al. Isolation and infection cycle of a polinton-like virus virophage in an abundant marine alga. Nat Microbiol 8, 332–346 (2023). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41564-022-01305-7