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Fast track to mutualism

Rapid experimental evolution and targeted genetic engineering of Escherichia coli in a stinkbug host reveals that a single mutation can produce a host-beneficial symbiosis.

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Fig. 1: Engineering a new host-beneficial symbiosis.


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I thank A. Vigneron for valuable comments on the manuscript and gratefully acknowledge financial support from the Max Planck Society and through a Consolidator Grant from the European Research Council (ERC CoG 819585 “SYMBeetle”).

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Correspondence to Martin Kaltenpoth.

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The author declares no competing interests.

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Kaltenpoth, M. Fast track to mutualism. Nat Microbiol 7, 1104–1105 (2022).

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