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Linking anaerobic gut bacteria and cardiovascular disease

Cooperative interaction between low-abundance gut bacteria is required to convert l-carnitine to TMAO via a multi-step pathway, which leads to an increased risk of cardiovascular disease.

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Fig. 1: The conversion of l-carnitine to TMAO in an anoxic environment.


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Correspondence to Karsten Zengler.

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Coker, J., Zaramela, L.S. & Zengler, K. Linking anaerobic gut bacteria and cardiovascular disease. Nat Microbiol 7, 14–15 (2022).

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