SARS-CoV-2 and RaTG13 are the most closely related (their most recent common ancestor nodes denoted by green circles), except in the 222-nt variable-loop region of the C-terminal domain (bar graphs at bottom). In the variable-loop region, RaTG13 diverges considerably with the TMRCA, now outside that of SARS-CoV-2 and the Pangolin Guangdong 2019 ancestor, suggesting that RaTG13 has acquired this region from a more divergent and undetected bat lineage. The genetic distances between SARS-CoV-2 and RaTG13 (bottom) demonstrate that their relationship is consistent across all regions except for the variable loop. The genetic distances between SARS-CoV-2 and Pangolin Guangdong 2019 are consistent across all regions except the N-terminal domain, implying that a recombination event between these two sequences in this region is unlikely. Uncertainty measures are shown in Extended Data Fig. 1. NTD, N-terminal domain; CTD, C-terminal domain.