Urbanization represents a profound shift in human behaviour, and has considerable cultural and health-associated consequences1,2. Here, we investigate chemical and microbial characteristics of houses and their human occupants across an urbanization gradient in the Amazon rainforest, from a remote Peruvian Amerindian village to the Brazilian city of Manaus. Urbanization was found to be associated with reduced microbial outdoor exposure, increased contact with housing materials, antimicrobials and cleaning products, and increased exposure to chemical diversity. The degree of urbanization correlated with changes in the composition of house bacterial and microeukaryotic communities, increased house and skin fungal diversity, and an increase in the relative abundance of human skin-associated fungi and bacteria in houses. Overall, our results indicate that urbanization has large-scale effects on chemical and microbial exposures and on the human microbiota.
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Mass spectrometry data have been deposited in MassIVE (accession number MSV000082924). Molecular networking jobs are available at https://gnps.ucsd.edu/ProteoSAFe/status.jsp?task=549cfafcdaef4a7496768f45bb90771c (full housing dataset). GNPS molecular networking jobs for dataset matching are available at https://gnps.ucsd.edu/ProteoSAFe/status.jsp?task=f1bc8144b7f648dc94215a34b94537df (Checherta), https://gnps.ucsd.edu/ProteoSAFe/status.jsp?task=044f5c1437e4453eb9d47afafadb7cfb (Puerto Almendra), https://gnps.ucsd.edu/ProteoSAFe/status.jsp?task=c3736e2379d1470f8b9e990a1afeb682 (Iquitos), https://gnps.ucsd.edu/ProteoSAFe/status.jsp?task=8799f335311540bdb5af75da896bd87c (Manaus low income) and https://gnps.ucsd.edu/ProteoSAFe/status.jsp?task=1070c36112c940a186fcf4454f845f08 (Manaus middle class; searches performed 19 August 2018). In silico structure annotation using NAP is provided at https://proteomics2.ucsd.edu/ProteoSAFe/status.jsp?task=af425ada55d54adca9c7b28a823af54c. The raw sequencing data and processed BIOM tables are available at Qiita (https://qiita.ucsd.edu/) under study ID 10333, and also at EMBL-EBI under submission number ERP107551.
Instructions and source codes for replicating the bioinformatic analyses are provided at https://github.com/knightlab-analyses/amazon-urbanization.
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We thank the collaborators in Peru, the late L. Bocca and the interpreter J. J. Semu for their support and information sources; in Manaus, A. Vasconcelos and J. Machado for help with the fieldwork, and the support of the community leader M. Aparecida Lisboa, Director of Association Fazendo Amigos (AFA), Manaus; the nurses that accompanied the researchers in the jungle; I. Fajardo Neddermann for helping us with the architectural work; D. Vargas and M. Magris, who helped to prepare the urbanization score survey; D. McDonald, J. Morton, R. da Silva and L. Jiang, who helped with DNA and MS data analysis. A. Cai helped to determine the sources of microorganisms correlated with cleaning products; in Peru, staff and community members participating within the Malaria Immunology and Genetics in the Amazon Project with the Ministry of Health of Peru for support. This study was supported by the Sloan Foundation (to M.G.D.-B., R.K. and P.C.D.), C&D Fund, and Emch Fund for Microbial Diversity (to M.G.D.-B.). Partial support was also provided by the NIH Research Initiative for Scientific Enhancement Program 2R25GM061151-13 (to J.F.R.-C.). L.-I.M. was partially supported by a fellowship from the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (grant no. 338511; http://www.cihr-irsc.gc.ca/). C.C. was supported by the Belgian American Educational Foundation and the Research Foundation Flanders. We acknowledge the NIH for providing the MS and MS data analysis infrastructure P41-GM103484 and GMS10RR029121 (to P.C.D.).
The authors declare no competing interests.
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Supplementary Notes, Supplementary Tables 1–6, Supplementary Figs. 1–22, Supplementary References and legends for Supplementary Data 1–5.
Cleaning product metabolite feature table.
Pearson correlation analysis between relative abundances of cleaning products and bacteria (n = 256).
Pearson correlation analysis between relative abundances of cleaning products and fungi (n = 140).
Pearson correlation analysis between relative abundances of cleaning products and microeukaryotes (n = 82).
Urbanization score calculation tool.
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McCall, L., Callewaert, C., Zhu, Q. et al. Home chemical and microbial transitions across urbanization. Nat Microbiol (2019) doi:10.1038/s41564-019-0593-4