Fig. 1: Interactions between influenza virus and Spn. | Nature Microbiology

Fig. 1: Interactions between influenza virus and Spn.

From: Making a bad relationship good

Fig. 1

Influenza virus directly binds to the surface of the bacterium, leading to increased adhesion of the bacteria to the respiratory epithelium, resulting in increased pathogenesis and mortality in a murine model. This viral binding to the bacterium is independent of bacterial viability, and use of a γ-irradiated Spn also resulted in increased viral infection of MDCK cells (left panel). When both Spn and the influenza virus were γ-irradiated, this direct binding between the two pathogens was still evident and led to increased uptake by macrophages. Mucosal vaccination of a murine model with this γ-irradiated pathogen complex enhanced lung resident memory T cell responses to influenza, possibly as a result of increased antigen presentation by macrophages (right panel).

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