Vector biology meets disease control: using basic research to fight vector-borne diseases

Abstract

Human pathogens that are transmitted by insects are a global problem, particularly those vectored by mosquitoes; for example, malaria parasites transmitted by Anopheles species, and viruses such as dengue, Zika and chikungunya that are carried by Aedes mosquitoes. Over the past 15 years, the prevalence of malaria has been substantially reduced and virus outbreaks have been contained by controlling mosquito vectors using insecticide-based approaches. However, disease control is now threatened by alarming rates of insecticide resistance in insect populations, prompting the need to develop a new generation of specific strategies that can reduce vector-mediated transmission. Here, we review how increased knowledge in insect biology and insect–pathogen interactions is stimulating new concepts and tools for vector control. We focus on strategies that either interfere with the development of pathogens within their vectors or directly impact insect survival, including enhancement of vector-mediated immune control, manipulation of the insect microbiome, or use of powerful new genetic tools such as CRISPR–Cas systems to edit vector genomes. Finally, we offer a perspective on the implementation hurdles as well as the knowledge gaps that must be filled in the coming years to safely realize the potential of these novel strategies to eliminate the scourge of vector-borne disease.

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Fig. 1: The malaria and dengue transmission cycles.
Fig. 2: Immune control strategies.
Fig. 3: Manipulating the microbiome.
Fig. 4: Gene drives bias inheritance to ensure their propagation.

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Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thank M. Bernardi for graphic assistance and D. Abernathy, P. Marcenac and D. Paton for careful reading of this manuscript. F.C. is funded on research related to the topic discussed here by a Faculty Research Scholar Award by the Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI) and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation (BMGF) (grant ID OPP1158190), and by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) (R01 AI124165). The findings and conclusions within this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect positions or policies of the HHMI, the BMGF or the NIH.

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Shaw, W.R., Catteruccia, F. Vector biology meets disease control: using basic research to fight vector-borne diseases. Nat Microbiol 4, 20–34 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41564-018-0214-7

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