Letter | Published:

Pseudomonas aeruginosa defends against phages through type IV pilus glycosylation

Abstract

Since phages present a major challenge to survival in most environments, bacteria express a battery of anti-phage defences including CRISPR–Cas, restriction-modification and abortive infection systems1,2,3,4. Such strategies are effective, but the phage genome—which encodes potentially inhibitory gene products—is still allowed to enter the cell. The safest way to preclude phage infection is to block initial phage adsorption to the cell. Here, we describe a cell-surface modification that blocks infection by certain phages. Strains of the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa express one of five different type IV pilins (T4P)5, two of which are glycosylated with O-antigen units6 or polymers of d-arabinofuranose7,8,9. We propose that predation by bacteriophages that use T4P as receptors selects for strains that mask potential phage binding sites using glycosylation. Here, we show that both modifications protect P. aeruginosa from certain pilus-specific phages. Alterations to pilin sequence can also block phage infection, but glycosylation is considered less likely to create disadvantageous phenotypes. Through construction of chimeric phages, we show that specific phage tail proteins allow for infection of strains with glycosylated pili. These studies provide insight into first-line bacterial defences against predation and ways in which phages circumvent them, and provide a rationale for the prevalence of pilus glycosylation in nature.

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Acknowledgements

We thank K. Maxwell for helpful comments on the manuscript. This work was supported by Canadian Institutes of Health Research Open Operating Grants to L.L.B. (MOP 86639) and to A.R.D. (XNE-86943 and MOP-115039).

Author information

H.H., A.R.D. and L.L.B. designed the study; H.H., J.B.-D., H.M. and K.M.S. performed experiments; H.H., A.R.D. and L.L.B. analysed the data; A.R.D. and L.L.B. wrote the manuscript with input from H.H., J.B.-D. and H.M. All authors approved the final version.

Correspondence to Alan R. Davidson or Lori L. Burrows.

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Supplementary Figures 1–3, Supplementary Figure References, Supplementary Tables 1–5, Supplementary Table 5 References.

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Further reading

Fig. 1: Infection of a P. aeruginosa PAO1 pilA mutant expressing non-glycosylated versus glycosylated pilins.
Fig. 2: A chimeric phage expressing DMS3 genes in the JBD26 background gains the ability to infect a strain with glycosylated pilins.
Fig. 3: Pilin D-region sequence affects phage susceptibility.
Fig. 4: Pilin d-arabinofuranosylation blocks phage infection.