Skip to main content

Thank you for visiting You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser (or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer). In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript.

Bioengineered organoids

A synthetic tumour microenvironment

A bioengineered model incorporating a synthetic extracellular matrix recapitulates the lymphoid tumour microenvironment, making it a valuable tool for drug testing and designing personalized therapies.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution

Access options

Rent or buy this article

Get just this article for as long as you need it


Prices may be subject to local taxes which are calculated during checkout

Fig. 1: Synthetic tumour microenvironment.


  1. Hanahan, D. & Weinberg, R. A. Cell 144, 646–674 (2011).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  2. Whiteside, T. L. Oncogene 27, 5904–5912 (2008).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  3. Quail, D. F. & Joyce, J. A. Nat. Med. 19, 1423–1437 (2013).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  4. Weiss, F., Lauffenburger, D. & Friedl, P. Nat. Rev. Cancer 22, 157–173 (2022).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  5. Shah, B. S. et al. Nat. Mater. (2023).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Schmitz, R. et al. N. Engl. J. Med. 378, 1396–1407 (2018).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  7. Chapuy, B. et al. Nat. Med. 24, 679–690 (2018).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  8. Lu, Y., Aimetti, A. A., Langer, R. & Gu, Z. Nat. Rev. Mater. 2, 16075 (2016).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Gu, L. & Mooney, D. J. Nat. Rev. Cancer 16, 56–66 (2016).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding authors

Correspondence to Akhilesh K. Gaharwar or Irtisha Singh.

Ethics declarations

Competing interests

The authors declare no competing interests.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Gaharwar, A.K., Singh, I. A synthetic tumour microenvironment. Nat. Mater. (2023).

Download citation

  • Published:

  • DOI:


Quick links

Nature Briefing: Cancer

Sign up for the Nature Briefing: Cancer newsletter — what matters in cancer research, free to your inbox weekly.

Get what matters in cancer research, free to your inbox weekly. Sign up for Nature Briefing: Cancer