Despite technical efforts and upgrades, advances in complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor circuits have become unsustainable in the face of inherent silicon limits. New materials are being sought to compensate for silicon deficiencies, and two-dimensional materials are considered promising candidates due to their atomically thin structures and exotic physical properties. However, a potentially applicable method for incorporating two-dimensional materials into silicon platforms remains to be illustrated. Here we try to bridge two-dimensional materials and silicon technology, from integrated devices to monolithic ‘on-silicon’ (silicon as the substrate) and ‘with-silicon’ (silicon as a functional component) circuits, and discuss the corresponding requirements for material synthesis, device design and circuitry integration. Finally, we summarize the role played by two-dimensional materials in the silicon-dominated semiconductor industry and suggest the way forward, as well as the technologies that are expected to become mainstream in the near future.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution
Subscribe to Nature+
Get immediate online access to Nature and 55 other Nature journal
Subscribe to Journal
Get full journal access for 1 year
only $9.92 per issue
All prices are NET prices.
VAT will be added later in the checkout.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.
All prices are NET prices.
Liu, C. et al. Two-dimensional materials for next-generation computing technologies. Nat. Nanotechnol. 15, 545–557 (2020).
Liu, Y. et al. Promises and prospects of two-dimensional transistors. Nature 591, 43–53 (2021).
Wang, S., Liu, X. & Zhou, P. The road for two‐dimensional semiconductors in the silicon age. Adv. Mater. https://doi.org/10.1002/adma.202106886 (2021).
Wan, X. et al. Quantitative analysis of scattering mechanisms in highly crystalline CVD MoS2 through a self-limited growth strategy by interface engineering. Small 12, 438–445 (2016).
Shen, P.-C. et al. Ultralow contact resistance between semimetal and monolayer semiconductors. Nature 593, 211–217 (2021).
International Roadmap for Devices and Systems (IRDS) 2020 Edition (IEEE, 2020); https://irds.ieee.org/editions/2020
Jena, D. Tunneling transistors based on graphene and 2-D crystals. Proc. IEEE 101, 1585–1602 (2013).
Wu, F. et al. Vertical MoS2 transistors with sub-1-nm gate lengths. Nature 603, 259–264 (2022).
O’Brien, K. et al. Advancing 2D monolayer CMOS through contact, channel and interface engineering. In 2021 IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM) 7.1.1–7.1.4 (IEEE, 2021).
Kumar, A. et al. Sub-200 Ω·µm alloyed contacts to synthetic monolayer MoS2. In 2021 IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM) 7.3.1–7.3.4 (IEEE, 2021).
Hong, S. et al. Ultralow-dielectric-constant amorphous boron nitride. Nature 582, 511–514 (2020).
Smets, Q. et al. Scaling of double-gated WS2 FETs to sub-5nm physical gate length fabricated in a 300mm FAB. In 2021 IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM) 34.2.1–34.2.4 (IEEE, 2021).
Chaves, A. et al. Bandgap engineering of two-dimensional semiconductor materials. npj 2D Mater. Appl. 4, 29 (2020).
Kim, Y. D. et al. Bright visible light emission from graphene. Nat. Nanotechnol. 10, 676–681 (2015).
Zeng, B. et al. Hybrid graphene metasurfaces for high-speed mid-infrared light modulation and single-pixel imaging. Light Sci. Appl. 7, 51 (2018).
Qu, Y. et al. Enhanced four-wave mixing in silicon nitride waveguides integrated with 2D layered graphene oxide films. Adv. Opt. Mater. 8, 2001048 (2020).
Malic, E. et al. Carrier dynamics in graphene: ultrafast many‐particle phenomena. Ann. Phys. 529, 1700038 (2017).
Wang, P. et al. Sensing infrared photons at room temperature: from bulk materials to atomic layers. Small 15, 1904396 (2019).
Hinton, H. et al. A 200 × 256 image sensor heterogeneously integrating a 2D nanomaterial-based photo-FET array and CMOS time-to-digital converters. In 2022 IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference (ISSCC) 12.2.1–12.2.3 (IEEE, 2022).
Zha, J. et al. Infrared photodetectors based on 2D materials and nanophotonics. Adv. Funct. Mater. 32, 2111970 (2022).
Gonzalez Marin, J. F., Unuchek, D., Watanabe, K., Taniguchi, T. & Kis, A. MoS2 photodetectors integrated with photonic circuits. npj 2D Mater. Appl. 3, 14 (2019).
Xu, F. et al. Complex refractive index tunability of graphene at 1550 nm wavelength. Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 031109 (2015).
Yu, L., Dai, D. & He, S. Graphene-based transparent flexible heat conductor for thermally tuning nanophotonic integrated devices. Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 251104 (2014).
Qiao, J. et al. Ultrasensitive and broadband all‐optically controlled THz modulator based on MoTe2/Si van der Waals heterostructure. Adv. Opt. Mater. 8, 2000160 (2020).
Pei, J. et al. Producing air-stable monolayers of phosphorene and their defect engineering. Nat. Commun. 7, 10450 (2016).
Zhang, Y. et al. Optimizing the Kerr nonlinear optical performance of silicon waveguides integrated with 2D graphene oxide films. J. Lightwave Technol. 39, 4671–4683 (2021).
Asselberghs, I. et al. Wafer-scale integration of double gated WS2-transistors in 300mm Si CMOS fab. In 2020 IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM) 40.2.1–40.2.4 (IEEE, 2020).
Schram, T. et al. High yield and process uniformity for 300 mm integrated WS2 FETs. In 2021 Symposium on VLSI Technology (VLSI) 1–2 (IEEE, 2021).
Han, S.-J., Garcia, A. V., Oida, S., Jenkins, K. A. & Haensch, W. Graphene radio frequency receiver integrated circuit. Nat. Commun. 5, 3086 (2014).
Zeng, S. et al. An application-specific image processing array based on WSe2 transistors with electrically switchable logic functions. Nat. Commun. 13, 56 (2022).
Lin, Z. et al. Solution-processable 2D semiconductors for high-performance large-area electronics. Nature 562, 254–258 (2018).
Wachter, S., Polyushkin, D. K., Bethge, O. & Mueller, T. A microprocessor based on a two-dimensional semiconductor. Nat. Commun. 8, 14948 (2017).
Yu, L. et al. Design, modeling, and fabrication of chemical vapor deposition grown MoS2 circuits with E-mode FETs for large-area electronics. Nano Lett. 16, 6349–6356 (2016).
Xiang, L. et al. Low-power carbon nanotube-based integrated circuits that can be transferred to biological surfaces. Nat. Electron. 1, 237–245 (2018).
Pan, C. et al. Reconfigurable logic and neuromorphic circuits based on electrically tunable two-dimensional homojunctions. Nat. Electron. 3, 383–390 (2020).
Chen, H. et al. Logic gates based on neuristors made from two-dimensional materials. Nat. Electron. 4, 399–404 (2021).
Liu, C. et al. Small footprint transistor architecture for photoswitching logic and in situ memory. Nat. Nanotechnol. 14, 662–667 (2019).
Wu, P., Reis, D., Hu, X. S. & Appenzeller, J. Two-dimensional transistors with reconfigurable polarities for secure circuits. Nat. Electron. 4, 45–53 (2021).
Sachid, A. B. et al. Monolithic 3D CMOS using layered semiconductors. Adv. Mater. 28, 2547–2554 (2016).
Dodda, A. et al. Graphene-based physically unclonable functions that are reconfigurable and resilient to machine learning attacks. Nat. Electron. 4, 364–374 (2021).
Lin, Y.-M. et al. Wafer-scale graphene integrated circuit. Science 332, 1294–1297 (2011).
Cheng, R. et al. Few-layer molybdenum disulfide transistors and circuits for high-speed flexible electronics. Nat. Commun. 5, 5143 (2014).
Seo, S.-Y. et al. Writing monolithic integrated circuits on a two-dimensional semiconductor with a scanning light probe. Nat. Electron. 1, 512–517 (2018).
Hong, S. et al. Highly sensitive active pixel image sensor array driven by large-area bilayer MoS2 transistor circuitry. Nat. Commun. 12, 3559 (2021).
Marega, G. M. et al. Logic-in-memory based on an atomically thin semiconductor. Nature 587, 72–77 (2020).
Feng, X. et al. Self-selective multi-terminal memtransistor crossbar array for in-memory computing. ACS Nano 15, 1764–1774 (2021).
Chen, S. et al. Wafer-scale integration of two-dimensional materials in high-density memristive crossbar arrays for artificial neural networks. Nat. Electron. 3, 638–645 (2020).
Mennel, L. et al. Ultrafast machine vision with 2D material neural network image sensors. Nature 579, 62–66 (2020).
Ma, S. et al. An artificial neural network chip based on two-dimensional semiconductor. Sci. Bull. 67, 270–277 (2021).
Tong, L. et al. 2D materials-based homogeneous transistor–memory architecture for neuromorphic hardware. Science 373, 1353–1358 (2021).
Jiang, J., Parto, K., Cao, W. & Banerjee, K. Ultimate monolithic-3D integration with 2D materials: rationale, prospects, and challenges. IEEE J. Electron Devices Soc. 7, 878–887 (2019).
Jiang, J., Chu, J. H. & Banerjee, K. CMOS-compatible doped-multilayer-graphene interconnects for next-generation VLSI. In 2018 IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM) 34.35.31–34.35.34 (IEEE, 2018).
Pal, A. et al. Two-dimensional materials enabled next-generation low-energy compute and connectivity. MRS Bull. 46, 1211–1228 (2021).
Goossens, S. et al. Broadband image sensor array based on graphene–CMOS integration. Nat. Photon. 11, 366–371 (2017).
Yang, C.-C. et al. Enabling monolithic 3D image sensor using large-area monolayer transition metal dichalcogenide and logic/memory hybrid 3D + IC. In 2016 IEEE Symposium on VLSI Technology (VLSI) 1–2 (IEEE, 2016).
Hong, S. K., Kim, C. S., Hwang, W. S. & Cho, B. J. Hybrid integration of graphene analog and silicon complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor digital circuits. ACS Nano 10, 7142–7146 (2016).
Das, S. et al. Transistors based on two-dimensional materials for future integrated circuits. Nat. Electron. 4, 786–799 (2021).
Zhu, K. et al. The development of integrated circuits based on two-dimensional materials. Nat. Electron. 4, 775–785 (2021).
Wang, C.-H. et al. 3D monolithic stacked 1T1R cells using monolayer MoS2 FET and hBN RRAM fabricated at low (150 °C) temperature. In 2018 IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM) 22.5.1–22.5.4 (IEEE, 2018).
Sivan, M. et al. All WSe2 1T1R resistive RAM cell for future monolithic 3D embedded memory integration. Nat. Commun. 10, 5201 (2019).
Kim, Y. et al. Atomic-layer-deposition-based 2D transition metal chalcogenides: synthesis, modulation, and applications. Adv. Mater. 33, 2005907 (2021).
Kang, K. et al. High-mobility three-atom-thick semiconducting films with wafer-scale homogeneity. Nature 520, 656–660 (2015).
Liu, C. et al. Kinetic modulation of graphene growth by fluorine through spatially confined decomposition of metal fluorides. Nat. Chem. 11, 730–736 (2019).
Chen, T.-A. et al. Wafer-scale single-crystal hexagonal boron nitride monolayers on Cu(111). Nature 579, 219–223 (2020).
Li, T. et al. Epitaxial growth of wafer-scale molybdenum disulfide semiconductor single crystals on sapphire. Nat. Nanotechnol. 16, 1201–1207 (2021).
Zhang, F. et al. Carbon doping of WS2 monolayers: bandgap reduction and p-type doping transport. Sci. Adv. 5, eaav5003 (2019).
Murai, Y. et al. Versatile post-doping toward two-dimensional semiconductors. ACS Nano 15, 19225–19232 (2021).
Kim, J. K. et al. Molecular dopant-dependent charge transport in surface-charge-transfer-doped tungsten diselenide field effect transistors. Adv. Mater. 33, 2101598 (2021).
Lee, D. et al. Remote modulation doping in van der Waals heterostructure transistors. Nat. Electron. 4, 664–670 (2021).
Yang, P. et al. Batch production of 6-inch uniform monolayer molybdenum disulfide catalyzed by sodium in glass. Nat. Commun. 9, 979 (2018).
Cheng, Z. et al. Are 2D interfaces really flat? ACS Nano 16, 5316–5324 (2022).
Jain, A. et al. Minimizing residues and strain in 2D materials transferred from PDMS. Nanotechnology 29, 265203 (2018).
Quellmalz, A. et al. Large-area integration of two-dimensional materials and their heterostructures by wafer bonding. Nat. Commun. 12, 917 (2021).
Phommahaxay, A. et al. The growing application field of laser debonding: from advanced packaging to future nanoelectronics. In 2019 International Wafer Level Packaging Conference (IWLPC) 1–8 (IEEE, 2019).
Kobayashi, T. et al. Production of a 100-m-long high-quality graphene transparent conductive film by roll-to-roll chemical vapor deposition and transfer process. Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 023112 (2013).
English, C. D., Shine, G., Dorgan, V. E., Saraswat, K. C. & Pop, E. Improved contacts to MoS2 transistors by ultra-high vacuum metal deposition. Nano Lett. 16, 3824–3830 (2016).
Wang, Y. et al. Van der Waals contacts between three-dimensional metals and two-dimensional semiconductors. Nature 568, 70–74 (2019).
Wang, J. et al. Transferred metal gate to 2D semiconductors for sub-1 V operation and near ideal subthreshold slope. Sci. Adv. 7, eabf8744 (2021).
Liu, Y. et al. Approaching the Schottky–Mott limit in van der Waals metal–semiconductor junctions. Nature 557, 696–700 (2018).
Chou, A.-S. et al. High on-state current in chemical vapor deposited monolayer MoS2 nFETs with Sn ohmic contacts. IEEE Electron Device Lett. 42, 272–275 (2020).
Chou, A.-S. et al. Antimony semimetal contact with enhanced thermal stability for high performance 2D electronics. In 2021 IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM) 7.2.1–7.2.4 (IEEE, 2021).
Wang, L. et al. One-dimensional electrical contact to a two-dimensional material. Science 342, 614–617 (2013).
Illarionov, Y. Y. et al. Insulators for 2D nanoelectronics: the gap to bridge. Nat. Commun. 11, 3385 (2020).
Li, W. et al. Uniform and ultrathin high-κ gate dielectrics for two-dimensional electronic devices. Nat. Electron. 2, 563–571 (2019).
Britnell, L. et al. Electron tunneling through ultrathin boron nitride crystalline barriers. Nano Lett. 12, 1707–1710 (2012).
Li, T. et al. A native oxide high-κ gate dielectric for two-dimensional electronics. Nat. Electron. 3, 473–478 (2020).
Liu, K. et al. A wafer-scale van der Waals dielectric made from an inorganic molecular crystal film. Nat. Electron. 4, 906–913 (2021).
Illarionov, Y. Y. et al. Ultrathin calcium fluoride insulators for two-dimensional field-effect transistors. Nat. Electron. 2, 230–235 (2019).
Huang, J.-K. et al. High-κ perovskite membranes as insulators for two-dimensional transistors. Nature 605, 262–267 (2022).
Hwang, A. et al. Visible and infrared dual-band imaging via Ge/MoS2 van der Waals heterostructure. Sci. Adv. 7, eabj2521 (2021).
Lanza, M., Smets, Q., Huyghebaert, C. & Li, L.-J. Yield, variability, reliability, and stability of two-dimensional materials based solid-state electronic devices. Nat. Commun. 11, 5689 (2020).
Cheng, Z. et al. How to report and benchmark emerging field-effect transistors. Nat. Electron 5, 416–423 (2022).
Yu, L. et al. High-yield large area MoS2 technology: material, device and circuits co-optimization. In 2016 IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM) 5.7.1–5.7.4 (IEEE, 2016).
Waltl, M. et al. Perspective of 2D integrated electronic circuits: scientific pipe dream or disruptive technology? Adv. Mater. https://doi.org/10.1002/adma.202201082 (2022).
Holler, M. et al. High-resolution non-destructive three-dimensional imaging of integrated circuits. Nature 543, 402–406 (2017).
Liu, L. et al. Ultrafast non-volatile flash memory based on van der Waals heterostructures. Nat. Nanotechnol. 16, 874–881 (2021).
Feldmann, J., Youngblood, N., Wright, C. D., Bhaskaran, H. & Pernice, W. H. P. All-optical spiking neurosynaptic networks with self-learning capabilities. Nature 569, 208–214 (2019).
Romagnoli, M. et al. Graphene-based integrated photonics for next-generation datacom and telecom. Nat. Rev. Mater. 3, 392–414 (2018).
Kang, K. et al. Layer-by-layer assembly of two-dimensional materials into wafer-scale heterostructures. Nature 550, 229–233 (2017).
Li, N. et al. Large-scale flexible and transparent electronics based on monolayer molybdenum disulfide field-effect transistors. Nat. Electron. 3, 711–717 (2020).
Kim, M. et al. Zero-static power radio-frequency switches based on MoS2 atomristors. Nat. Commun. 9, 2524 (2018).
Ge, R. et al. Atomristor: nonvolatile resistance switching in atomic sheets of transition metal dichalcogenides. Nano Lett. 18, 434–441 (2018).
Wang, H.-C. et al. Hydrogen plasma-treated MoSe2 nanosheets enhance the efficiency and stability of organic photovoltaics. Nanoscale 11, 17460–17470 (2019).
You, P., Tang, G. & Yan, F. Two-dimensional materials in perovskite solar cells. Mater. Today Energy 11, 128–158 (2019).
Wang, T. Y. et al. Ultralow power wearable heterosynapse with photoelectric synergistic modulation. Adv. Sci. 7, 1903480 (2020).
Wang, Y. et al. High on/off ratio black phosphorus based memristor with ultrathin phosphorus oxide layer. Appl. Phys. Lett. 115, 193503 (2019).
Shen, Y. et al. Variability and yield in h-BN-based memristive circuits: the role of each type of defect. Adv. Mater. 33, 2103656 (2021).
Zomer, P., Dash, S., Tombros, N. & Van Wees, B. A transfer technique for high mobility graphene devices on commercially available hexagonal boron nitride. Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 232104 (2011).
Kappera, R. et al. Phase-engineered low-resistance contacts for ultrathin MoS2 transistors. Nat. Mater. 13, 1128–1134 (2014).
Larentis, S., Fallahazad, B. & Tutuc, E. Field-effect transistors and intrinsic mobility in ultrathin MoSe2 layers. Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 223104 (2012).
Kelly, A. G. et al. All-printed thin-film transistors from networks of liquid-exfoliated nanosheets. Science 356, 69–73 (2017).
De Fazio, D. et al. High-mobility, wet-transferred graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition. ACS Nano 13, 8926–8935 (2019).
Liu, L. et al. Uniform nucleation and epitaxy of bilayer molybdenum disulfide on sapphire. Nature 605, 69–75 (2022).
Chang, Y.-H. et al. Monolayer MoSe2 grown by chemical vapor deposition for fast photodetection. ACS Nano 8, 8582–8590 (2014).
Poh, S. M. et al. Molecular beam epitaxy of highly crystalline MoSe2 on hexagonal boron nitride. ACS Nano 12, 7562–7570 (2018).
Kim, Y. et al. Self-limiting layer synthesis of transition metal dichalcogenides. Sci. Rep. 6, 18754 (2016).
Manzeli, S., Ovchinnikov, D., Pasquier, D., Yazyev, O. V. & Kis, A. 2D transition metal dichalcogenides. Nat. Rev. Mater. 2, 17033 (2017).
Akinwande, D. et al. Graphene and two-dimensional materials for silicon technology. Nature 573, 507–518 (2019).
Zeng, S., Tang, Z., Liu, C. & Zhou, P. Electronics based on two-dimensional materials: status and outlook. Nano Res. 14, 1752–1767 (2021).
Larrieu, G., Guerfi, Y., Han, X. & Clément, N. Sub-15-nm gate-all-around field effect transistors on vertical silicon nanowires. Solid State Electron 130, 9–14 (2017).
Long, M., Wang, P., Fang, H. & Hu, W. Progress, challenges, and opportunities for 2D material based photodetectors. Adv. Funct. Mater. 29, 1803807 (2019).
Fang, Z., Chen, Q. Y. & Zhao, C. Z. A review of recent progress in lasers on silicon. Opt. Laser Technol. 46, 103–110 (2013).
You, J. et al. Hybrid/integrated silicon photonics based on 2D materials in optical communication nanosystems. Laser Photon. Rev. 14, 2000239 (2020).
Tian, H., Wang, X., Wu, F., Yang, Y. & Ren, T. -L. High performance 2D perovskite/graphene optical synapses as artificial eyes. In 2018 IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM) 38.36.31–38.36.34 (IEEE, 2018).
Liu, D. S., Wu, J., Xu, H. & Wang, Z. Emerging light-emitting materials for photonic integration. Adv. Mater. 33, 2003733 (2021).
Tan, T., Jiang, X., Wang, C., Yao, B. & Zhang, H. 2D material optoelectronics for information functional device applications: status and challenges. Adv. Sci. 7, 2000058 (2020).
Liu, C. et al. Silicon/2D-material photodetectors: from near-infrared to mid-infrared. Light Sci. Appl. 10, 123 (2021).
García de Arquer, F. P., Armin, A., Meredith, P. & Sargent, E. H. Solution-processed semiconductors for next-generation photodetectors. Nat. Rev. Mater. 2, 16100 (2017).
Schram, T. et al. WS2 transistors on 300 mm wafers with BEOL compatibility. In 2017 47th European Solid-State Device Research Conference (ESSDERC) 212–215 (IEEE, 2017).
Asselberghs, I. et al. Scaled transistors with 2D materials from the 300mm fab. In 2020 IEEE Silicon Nanoelectronics Workshop (SNW) 67–68 (IEEE, 2020).
This work was supported by the National Key Research and Development Program of China (2021YFA1200500), National Natural Science Foundation of China (61925402 and 62090032) and Science and Technology Commission of Shanghai Municipality (19JC1416600).
The authors declare no competing interests.
Peer review information
Nature Materials thanks Jian-Bin Xu and the other, anonymous, reviewer(s) for their contribution to the peer review of this work.
Publisher’s note Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
About this article
Cite this article
Wang, S., Liu, X., Xu, M. et al. Two-dimensional devices and integration towards the silicon lines. Nat. Mater. 21, 1225–1239 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41563-022-01383-2