Electrostatic dielectric capacitors are essential components in advanced electronic and electrical power systems due to their ultrafast charging/discharging speed and high power density. A major challenge, however, is how to improve their energy densities to effectuate the next-generation applications that demand miniaturization and integration. Here, we report a high-entropy stabilized Bi2Ti2O7-based dielectric film that exhibits an energy density as high as 182 J cm−3 with an efficiency of 78% at an electric field of 6.35 MV cm−1. Our results reveal that regulating the atomic configurational entropy introduces favourable and stable microstructural features, including lattice distorted nano-crystalline grains and a disordered amorphous-like phase, which enhances the breakdown strength and reduces the polarization switching hysteresis, thus synergistically contributing to the energy storage performance. This high-entropy approach is expected to be widely applicable for the development of high-performance dielectrics.
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The data supporting the findings of this study are available within the manuscript and its Supplementary Information files. Any other relevant data are also available upon request from Y.-H.L. Source data are provided with this paper and are available at https://figshare.com/articles/dataset/SourceData/19642233.
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We thank W. Miao for fruitful discussions. L.-Q.C. acknowledges the generous support by the Hamer Foundation through a Hamer Professorship at Penn State. Y.-H.L. was supported by the National Key Research Program of China (grant no. 2021YFB3800601). Y.-H.L., C.-W.N. and J.Z. were supported by the Basic Science Center Project of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC; grant no. 51788104). J.Z. was supported by the NSFC (grant no. 11834009), Applied Basic Research Major Programme of Guangdong Province, China (grant no. 2021B0301030003) and Jihua Laboratory (project no. X210141TL210). Q.Z. and L.G. were supported by the NSFC (grant nos 52025025 and 52072400). Z.S. was supported by the NSFC (no. 52002300) and the Major Research Plan of the NSFC (grant no. 92066103). H.H. was supported by the NSFC (grant no. 51972028). J.H. was supported by the NSFC (grant no. 11934007).
The authors declare no competing interests.
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Extended Data Fig. 1 HAADF, NBD, FFT images and schematic lattice structure of the film with x = 0.4.
a, Along the  zone axes. b, Along the  zone axes.
a, Comparison of the Pm/Pr and Uloss of these films. b, Frequency dependent dielectric permittivity and loss tangent.
Extended Data Fig. 3 Bipolar P-E loops of the films at electric fields up to their breakdown field at 10 kHz.
a, x = 0.0. b, x = 0.1. c, x = 0.2. d, x = 0.3. e, x = 0.4. f, x = 0.5.
a, Discharged energy storage density and b, energy efficiency as functions of the electric field.
a, Schematic graph shows the process of determining the center of atomic column, which is not influenced by the size and contrast of atomic column. b, The raw and reference image used for measuring atomic displacement in this work. The green parallelogram represents the area exerted for determining center of atomic column and corresponding fitting results are shown below.
a, The HAADF images acquired along the  zone axis of the x = 0.4 film. The real atom position is determined by fitting the intensity peak of the atom. b, FFT result shows the frequency information in the reciprocal space. The frequency containing non-distorted lattice is marked by a green mask, which is used for subsequent iFFT operation. c, The iFFT result of the frequency selected by masks shown in (b). Gaussian fitting is used again to determine the non-distorted atomic position. Ion displacement is calculated as the difference between the ion positions in the real and non-distorted lattices.
X-ray diffraction source data.
Dielectric, leakage and breakdown source data.
Grain size and amorphous-like phase source data.
Energy storage source data.
Polarization and dielectric property source data.
Bipolar P–E loop source data.
Energy storage source data.
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Yang, B., Zhang, Y., Pan, H. et al. High-entropy enhanced capacitive energy storage. Nat. Mater. (2022). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41563-022-01274-6
Nature Reviews Materials (2022)