Skip to main content

Thank you for visiting You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser (or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer). In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript.


Living building blocks

A prototypical biocomposite block comprising a blend of bacteria, fungi and feedstock can be assembled into human-sized, living structures with self-healing and environmental sensing capabilities.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution

Access options

Rent or buy this article

Get just this article for as long as you need it


Prices may be subject to local taxes which are calculated during checkout

Fig. 1: Engineering of sensing and responsive biomaterials.


  1. McBee, R. M. et al. Nat. Mater. (2021).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Elsacker, E., Vandelook, S., Brancart, J., Peeters, E. & De Laet, L. PLoS ONE 14, e0213954 (2019).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  3. Haneef, M. et al. Sci. Rep. 7, 41292 (2017).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  4. Appelsa, F. V. W. et al. Mater. Des. 161, 64–71 (2019).

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Matthew Wook Chang.

Ethics declarations

Competing interests

The authors declare no competing interests.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Wun, K.S., Hwang, I.Y. & Chang, M.W. Living building blocks. Nat. Mater. 21, 382–383 (2022).

Download citation

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI:


Quick links

Nature Briefing

Sign up for the Nature Briefing newsletter — what matters in science, free to your inbox daily.

Get the most important science stories of the day, free in your inbox. Sign up for Nature Briefing